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Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) applications in China–achievements and challenges

Guo Jin-xing Li Zhi-ping Stefan Catalin

Guo JX, Li ZP, Stefan C. 2022. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) applications in China–achievements and challenges. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(1): 57-69 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.006
Citation: Guo JX, Li ZP, Stefan C. 2022. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) applications in China–achievements and challenges. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(1): 57-69 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.006

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.006

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) applications in China–achievements and challenges

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  • Figure  1.  General distribution of the MAR projects in China (base map from http://bzdt.ch.mnr.gov.cn)

    Figure  2.  Number of the primary MAR case types

    Figure  3.  Numbers of different specific MAR cases in China

    Figure  4.  Distribution of specific MAR cases in different provinces and municipalities

    Figure  5.  Development of the MAR projects in China after 1960

    Figure  6.  Primary MAR types with aquifer materials

    Figure  7.  Primary MAR types with aquifer types

    Figure  8.  Percentage of different uses of the extracted water from the recharged aquifers

    Figure  9.  General framework to develop an MAR project (adapted from Jin et al. 2012 with permission)

    Table  1.   Analysis criteria of the 136 MAR projects (entry count is the number of projects, followed by the percentage of projects with the specific parameter data)

    No.Field parameterEntry count/ %
    General information
    01 Name of site 136 (100%)
    02 City 127 (93.3%)
    03 Province 134 (98.5%)
    04 Latitude 116 (85.3%)
    05 Longitude 116 (85.3%)
    06 Size of site 18 (13.2%)
    07 Under operation since (year) 104 (76.5%)
    08 Institution 17 (12.5%)
    09 Specific MAR type 136 (100%)
    10 Objective 124 (91.2%)
    11 Influent source 133 (97.8%)
    12 Final use 109 (80.1%)
    Operation
    13 No. of infiltration structures 55 (40.4%)
    14 No. if infiltration wells 29 (21.3%)
    15 Avg. filter depth (recharge) 16 (11.8%)
    16 Scale of catchment area 8 (5.9%)
    17 Reservoir area 10 (7.4%)
    18 Reservoir/storage capacity 11 (8.1%)
    19 Recharge efficiency 4 (3.0%)
    20 Avg. injected/infiltrated volume 17 (12.5%)
    21 Initial injected/infiltrated volume 2 (1.5%)
    22 Total injected/infiltrated volume 7 (5.1%)
    23 Avg. infiltration rate 9 (6.6%)
    24 No. of monitoring wells 20 (14.7%)
    25 No. of recovery wells 9 (6.6%)
    26 Avg. filter depth (Extraction) 3 (2.2%)
    27 Avg. extracted volume 5 (3.7%)
    28 Horizontal aquifer passage 3 (2.2%)
    Hydrogeological properties
    29 Hydraulic conductivity of soils 4 (2.9%)
    30 Aquifer thickness 9 (6.6%)
    31 Aquifer confinement 96 (70.6%)
    32 Aquifer type 96 (70.6%)
    33 Development of water table 24 (17.6%)
    34 Initial ground water level 13 (9.6%)
    35 Final ground water level 16 (11.8%)
    Water quality
    36 Hydrochemical data 12 (8.8%)
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Classification of Chinese MAR projects (Dillon, 2005) and relative references

    Main MAR typeSpecific MAR typeCollected literatures
    Techniques regarding infiltration method Spreading methods Infiltration ponds & basins Huang and Pang (2013), Jin et al. (2012), Li et al. (2011), Pi and Wang (2006), Su et al. (1996), Su et al. (2014), Xu et al. (2012), Yuan (1979), Zhang (2005), Zhang et al. (2013).
    Flooding Su et al. (2010)
    Ditch & furrow Ding (1997), Jia and Li (2012), Li (1997), Li (2009), Li et al. (2007), Liu et al. (2006), Liu and Song (1989), Wang and Zhang (1991), Wei et al. (2014), Yan (2009), Yang et al. (2010), Zhang (2005).
    Excess irrigation
    Reverse drainage methods Guan et al. (2015)
    Induced bank filtration Induced bank filtration Zhang et al. (2013)
    Well, shaft & borehole recharge ASR/ASTR Lu et al. (2014), Liu et al. (2006), Liu and Pan (2014), Qu et al. (2012), Su (2012),Wang et al. (2012), Wang and Qu (2011), Yan et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2011), Zhao et al. (2004).
    Dug well/shaft/pit injection Bai et al. (2010),Dong (2010),Dong et al. (2011), Fan (2014), Hao (2011), Liu et al. (2006), Li et al. (2012), Liu and Dai (2013), Qu (2014), Wu et al. (2010), Yang et al. (2010), Zhang et al. (2013), Zhang et al. (2015).
    Techniques regarding interception methods In-channel modifications Recharge dam Han (2002), Hao (2011), He and Shen (2010), Huang and Pang (2013), Liu et al. (2004), Sun et al. (2006),Wang et al. (1999),Wang et al. (2001), Wang et al. (1998), Wen et al. (2000), Zhang (2005), Zhang (2006).
    Subsurface dam Huang and Pang (2013), Liu et al. (2004), Shi and Jiu (2014), Sun et al. (2006), Wang et al. (2012), Zhang and Wang (2011), Zhou et al. (2014).
    Sand and storage dam
    Channel spreading
    Rainwater & run-off harvesting Rooftop rainwater harvesting He (2012), Wang (2012), Yan (2009), Zhang et al. (2013), Zhu (2012), Zhu (2013).
    Barriers & bunds
    Trenches
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Percentage of the water sources used in the MAR projects in China

    Water source of MAR projectsPercentage of the water sources in all the MAR projects in ChinaCollected literatures
    Rainwater 25.0% Ding (1997), He (2012),Huang and Pang (2013),Li et al. (2011), Su et al. (1996), Wang (2012),Yan (2009), Zhang et al. (2013), Zhao et al. (2004), Zhu (2012), Zhu (2013),
    Lakes & artificial reservoirs 4.8% Jia and Li (2012), Qu (2014).
    Perennial streams 40.4% Ding (1996), Dong (2010), Guan et al. (2015), Han (2002), Hao (2011), Huang and Pang (2013), Jin et al. (2012), Li (2009), Liu et al. (2004), Liu et al. (2006), Liu and Dai (2013), Liu and Song (1989), Shi and Jiu (2014), Su (2012), Su et al. (2010), Su et al. (2014), Sun et al. (2006), Wang et al. (2012), Wang et al. (2001),Wang et al. (1998), Wang and Qu (2011), Wang and Zhang (1991), Wen et al. (2000), Yang et al. (2010),Yuan (1979), Zhang (2005), Zhang et al. (2013), Zhang (2006), Zhang and Wang (2011), Zhou et al. (2014).
    Tap water 2.9% Wu et al. (2010), Yang et al. (2010).
    Aquifer (groundwater) 8.7% Bai et al. (2010), Fan (2014), Liu et al. (2006), Liu and Pan (2014), Lu et al. (2014), Qu et al. (2012), Yan et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2011).
    Treated waste water 4.8% Dong et al. (2011), He and Shen (2010), Jin et al. (2012), Li et al. (2012), Pi and Wang (2006), Wei et al. (2014), Xu et al. (2012), Zhang et al. (2007).
    River water 13.5% Han (2002), He and Shen (2010), Huang and Pang (2013), Shi and Jiu (2014), Wang et al. (1999), Wang et al. (2012), Zhang (2005).
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-19
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-15

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