Comparison on the phytoextraction efficiency of Bidens pilosa at heavy metal contaminated site in natural and electrokinetic conditions
Abstract: The plant samples of Bidens pilosa were collected from a coal gangue vacant site and its surrounding area, located in central China, to study the remediation effect of the plant species on heavy metal (HM) contamination in both natural and electrokinetic (EK) conditions. The analytical results showed that the effect of phytoextraction and bioconcentration on the heavy metals in the sample of the EK group is more significant than those in the other control group. Compared with the results of natural condition, under the EK condition the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the stems and leaves of the
Bidens pilosa increased to 0.40 mg/kg, 4.23 mg/kg, 7.27 mg/kg, 830.24 mg/kg, respectively, with their increments of 292%, 1731%, 141%, 2076%. For root samples, the Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations increased to 0.52 mg/kg, 4.36 mg/kg, 10.87 mg/kg, and 98.12 mg/kg and the increase rates were 1034%, 140%, 29%, and 181%, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the Bidens pilosa was significantly higher than that of control group. The removal efficiency of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soil increased to 26%, 72%, 27%, and 79% with the EK applied. In addition, the mechanism of HM migration, extraction and enrichment in Bidens pilosa under the EK condition was discussed.
Table 1. Detailed sampling scheme for EK and control groups
Sample type Soil:Before remediation Soil:After remediation Plant:AG Plant:Root Subsample locations Anode×3 Anode×3 Anode×3 Anode×3 Central×3 Central×3 Central×3 Central×3 Cathode×3 Cathode×3 Cathode×3 Cathode×3 9 subsamples 9 subsamples 9 subsamples 9 subsamples in total in total in total in total
Table 2. Comparison of the HM concentrations in Bidens pilosa under natural and EK conditions
Cd Pb Cu Cr Zn AG Concentration: Natural condition (mg/kg) 0.10 0.23 3.01 9.15 38.15 Concentration: EK condition (mg/kg) 0.40 4.32 7.27 5.31 830.24 Increase rate (%) 292.16 1 731.78 141.69 −42.02 2 076.26 Root Concentration: Natural condition (mg/kg) 0.046 1.815 8.39 15.88 34.90 Concentration: EK condition (mg/kg) 0.52 4.36 10.87 13.73 98.12 Increase rate (%) 1 034.78 140.66 29.58 −13.49 181.16
Table 3. Comparison of the BCF in Bidens pilosa under natural and EK conditions.
Cd Pb Cu Cr Zn AG BCF: Natural condition 0.16 0.005 0.10 0.13 0.40 BCF: EK condition 0.81 0.13 0.27 0.93 1.02 Increase rate (%) 407.20 2 506.00 172.65 −32.09 2 411.27 Root BCF: Natural condition 0.07 0.03 0.27 0.23 37 BCF: EK condition 1.06 0.13 0.40 0.23 120 Increase rate (%) 1 361.64 245.67 46.21 −1.25 224.42
Table 4. Comparison of TF in Bidens pilosa under natural and EK conditions.
Cd Pb Cu Cr Zn TF: Natural condition 2.21 0.13 0.35 0.57 1.09 TF: Power-on condition 0.76 0.99 0.66 0.38 8.46 Increase rate (%) −65 661 86 −32 674
Table 5. Comparison of the soil HM removal efficiency by Bidens pilosa under natural and EK conditions
Cd Pb Cu Zn Cr Removal rate: natural condition (%) 5 59 16 12 19 Removal rate: EK condition (%) 26 72 27 79 13 Increase rate (%) 420.00 22.04 68.75 558.33 −31.58
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