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Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a karst basin, SW China

Fu-ning Lan Yi Zhao Jun Li Xiu-qun Zhu

Lan FN, Zhao Y, Li J, et al. 2024. Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a karst basin, SW China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 49-61 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280005
Citation: Lan FN, Zhao Y, Li J, et al. 2024. Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a karst basin, SW China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 49-61 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280005

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280005

Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a karst basin, SW China

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  • Figure  1.  Surface-underground water system of Nandong Undeground River Basin and sampling sites in our study

    Figure  2.  Piper diagram of water samples in NURB

    Figure  3.  Distributions and dynamic changes of metal elements in surface and groundwater samples in NURB

    *GW means groundwater, SW means surface water

    Figure  4.  Monthly maximum health risks exposure to metal elements from different water sources for adults through: (a) Drinking; (b) Skin penetration

    Figure  5.  Monthly maximum health risks exposure to metal elements from different water sources for children through: (a) Drinking; (b) Skin penetration

    Table  1.   Values of parameters related to health risk assessment

    MetalPC
    (10−3/cm·h−1)
    SF/(kg·d)·mg−1RfD/mg·(kg·d)−1
    Drinking waterSkin penetrationDrinking waterSkin penetration
    Carcinogenic As 1.8 1.5 3.66 / /
    Cr 2 41 41 / /
    Cd 1 6.1 6.1 / /
    Non-carcinogenic Al 10 / / 0.14 0.14
    Cu 0.6 / / 0.04 0.012
    Pb 0.004 / / 0.0014 0.00042
    Zn 0.6 / / 0.3 0.01
    Fe 0.1 / / 0.3 0.045
    Ni 0.1 / / 0.02 0.0054
    Mn 0.1 / / 0.046 0.0018
    Hg 1.8 / / 0.0003 0.0003
    Note: *No reference standard value; PC, permeability coefficient; SF, slope factor; RfD, reference daily intake.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Concentrations of metals in the water of Nandong Groundwater River Basin (μg·L−1)

    Metals n=84ScopeAverageStandard deviationVariation coefficientExceed standard limitation (%)
    Al9.90–5,274.00440.04913.092.0838.10
    Cund–26.702.344.752.030
    Pbnd–124.003.6215.434.262.38
    Znnd–1,311.0082.39211.242.561.19
    Fend–7,790.00486.831,127.612.3226.19
    Cr1.10–10.703.472.080.600
    Cdnd–61.003.6310.342.857.14
    Ni0.78–13.902.992.220.740
    Mn2.44–2,035.00113.13276.852.4515.48
    Asnd–54.706.138.011.3117.86
    Hgnd–0.940.410.260.6340.48
    Metals n=84ChinaUS EPAWHO
    Drinking water (Limits)Surface water(Ⅲ)Ground water(Ⅲ)Drinking waterDrinking water
    Al200200200
    Cu1,0001,0001,0001,3002,000
    Pb1050101510
    Zn1,0001,0001,000
    Fe300300300
    Cr50505010050
    Cd55553
    Ni202070
    Mn100100100400
    As1050101010
    Hg10.11
    *nd means not detected, –means no corresponding reference value.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Pearson correlation matrix for metal elements and pH in the water samples

    n=84ECpHAlCuPbZnFeCrCdNiMnAsHg
    EC1.0000.164−0.0420.0830.0310.177−0.0640.0330.1240.1400.0230.1630.060
    pH1.0000.0450.0400.134−0.0220.0320.179−0.0700.1090.024−0.041−0.147
    Al1.0000.746**0.579**0.240*0.929**0.632**0.0370.916**0.652**0.290**−0.201
    Cu1.0000.756**0.692**0.700**0.479**0.1710.805**0.920**0.282**−0.172
    Pb1.0000.285**0.490**0.351**0.1120.690**0.486**0.268*−0.103
    Zn1.0000.1660.2100.469**0.327**0.757**0.0600.016
    Fe1.0000.641**0.0140.836**0.659**0.447**−0.207
    Cr1.0000.1990.643**0.431**0.169−0.292**
    Cd1.0000.0950.1410.0320.297**
    Ni1.0000.657**0.206−0.237*
    Mn1.0000.294**−0.154
    As1.000−0.014
    Hg1.000
    * Significant at 0.05 level.
    * * Significant at 0.01 level.
    EC means Electrical Conductivity
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Annual per capita health risks caused by metals in different types of water though drinking water and skin penetration, respectively (a−1)

    Exposure wayMetalsGroundwaterSurface Water
    AdultsChildrenAdultsChildren
    Drinking water Carcinogenesis As /–1.93×10−5 /–2.30×10−5 6.91×10−7
    4.30×10−5
    8.24×10−7
    5.12×10−5
    Cr 5.11×10−5
    2.30×10−4
    6.09×10−5
    2.74×10−4
    2.36×10−5
    2.30×10−4
    2.81×10−5
    2.74×10−4
    Cd /–1.95×10−4 /–2.32×10−4 /–4.67×10−6 /–5.56×10−6
    No-carcinogenesis Al 4.53×10−11
    1.97×10−8
    5.39×10−11
    2.35×10−8
    3.70×10−11
    1.69×10−8
    4.41×10−11
    2.01×10−8
    Cu /–3.50×10−10 /–4.16×10−10 2.23×10−12
    2.70×10−10
    2.65×10−12
    3.21×10−10
    Pb /–4.64×10−8 /–5.53×10−8 /–1.64×10−8 /–1.95×10−8
    Zn /–2.29×10−9 /–2.73×10−9 /–7.67×10−11 /–9.13×10−11
    Fe /–8.31×10−9 /–9.90×10−9 /–1.36×10−8 /–1.62×10−8
    Ni 3.85×10−11
    3.64×10−10
    4.59×10−11
    4.34×10−10
    2.04×10−11
    2.86×10−10
    2.43×10−11
    3.40×10−10
    Mn 2.78×10−11
    2.31×10−8
    3.31×10−11
    2.76×10−8
    6.07×10−11
    1.44×10−8
    7.23×10−11
    1.72×10−8
    Hg /–1.54×10−9 /–1.83×10−9 /–1.64×10−9 /–1.96×10−9
    Drinking water Carcinogenesis As /–4.40×10−7 /–3.37×10−7 1.57×10−8
    9.78×10−7
    1.21×10−8
    7.49×10−7
    Cr 5.30×10−7
    2.38×10−6
    4.06×10−7
    1.83×10−6
    2.45×10−7
    2.38×10−6
    1.87×10−7
    1.83×10−6
    Cd /–1.01×10−6 /–7.74×10−7 /–2.42×10−8 /–1.85×10−8
    No-carcinogenesis Al 2.35×10−12
    1.02×10−9
    1.80×10−12
    7.83×10−10
    1.92×10−12
    8.75×10−10
    1.47×10−12
    6.71×10−10
    Cu /–3.62×10−12 /–2.78×10−12 2.31×10−14
    2.80×10−12
    1.77×10−14
    2.14×10−12
    Pb /–3.21×10−12 /–2.46×10−12 /–1.13×10−12 /–8.68×10−13
    Zn /–2.14×10−10 /–1.64×10−10 /–7.15×10−12 /–5.48×10−12
    Fe /–2.87×10−11 /–2.19×10−11 /–4.70×10−11 /–3.59×10−11
    Ni 7.39×10−14
    6.99×10−13
    5.66×10−14
    5.35×10−13
    3.92×10−14
    5.48×10−13
    3.00×10−14
    4.20×10−13
    Mn 3.68×10−13
    3.07×10−10
    2.82×10−13
    2.35×10−10
    8.04×10−13
    1.91×10−10
    6.16×10−13
    1.46×10−10
    Hg /–1.43×10−11 /–1.10−11 /–1.53×10−11 /–1.17×10−11
    “/”means no calculation results.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-26
  • 录用日期:  2023-12-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-15

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