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Identified the hydrochemical and the sulfur cycle process in subsidence area of Pingyu mining area using multi-isotopes combined with hydrochemistry methods

Hui-Meng Su Fa-Wang Zhang Jing-Yu Hu Jin-Feng Lei Wei Zuo Bo Yang Yu-Hua Liu

Su HM, Zhang FW, Hu JY, et al. 2024. Identified the hydrochemical and the sulfur cycle process in subsidence area of Pingyu mining area using multi-isotopes combined with hydrochemistry methods. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 62-77 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280006
Citation: Su HM, Zhang FW, Hu JY, et al. 2024. Identified the hydrochemical and the sulfur cycle process in subsidence area of Pingyu mining area using multi-isotopes combined with hydrochemistry methods. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 62-77 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280006

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280006

Identified the hydrochemical and the sulfur cycle process in subsidence area of Pingyu mining area using multi-isotopes combined with hydrochemistry methods

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  • Figure  1.  Map of geological geomorphology and sampling points in the study area

    Figure  2.  Hydrogeological profile (2008) of the study area

    Figure  3.  Piper diagram showing the chemical compositions of the groundwater

    Figure  4.  Box plot of isotope in the Study Area ((a) D; (b) 18O-H2O; (c) 34S- SO4; (d) 18O-H2O versus D values of the water samples in reference to the GMWL and LMWL)

    Figure  5.  End-element diagram of water chemistry in the study area ((a) Gibbs diagram; (b) Mg2+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+molar ratio end element diagram)

    Figure  6.  Hydrochemical ion ratio in the study area

    Figure  7.  Relationship between 34S-SO4 and SO42−

    Figure  8.  Water level lines for karst water in mining areas and surrounding subsidence areas

    Table  1.   Hydrochemical parameters and PHREEQC calculation results of water samples in the study area

    TypeNumberpHK+Na+Ca2+Mg2+ClSO42−HCO3NO3H2SiO3TDSDepthSI-
    calcite
    SI-
    dolomite
    Concentration(mg/L)m
    Surface water XF 7.15 5.45 19.35 46.53 26.13 20.74 73.20 223.62 6.86 20.12 310.64 0.00 −0.24 −0.38
    YL 7.19 3.70 4.07 43.09 10.45 15.95 23.65 139.00 4.86 7.44 175.55 0.00 −0.38 −1.02
    NT 7.22 12.00 17.44 67.21 26.13 25.52 61.28 290.10 12.70 24.49 368.10 0.00 0.09 0.11
    XS 7.25 9.12 15.10 86.17 29.26 35.10 83.16 314.27 16.55 5.36 432.17 0.00 0.24 0.35
    HS 7.28 9.38 16.10 39.64 15.68 38.29 13.50 181.31 1.30 5.89 225.28 0.00 −0.22 −0.50
    BS 7.30 11.17 68.88 89.62 27.17 82.95 203.80 229.66 34.81 3.30 634.39 0.00 0.13 0.07
    YH 7.33 6.56 42.06 151.66 36.58 118.05 237.70 271.96 53.42 16.48 782.56 0.00 0.42 0.56
    HTL 7.35 4.36 11.46 44.81 19.86 35.10 68.60 145.05 1.29 6.41 258.43 0.00 −0.22 −0.45
    MG 7.37 4.05 10.54 51.70 22.99 31.91 81.72 169.22 1.04 3.04 289.07 0.00 −0.08 −0.18
    LFS 7.40 8.74 13.55 44.81 19.86 38.29 48.26 169.22 1.09 1.24 259.60 0.00 −0.10 −0.21
    LT 7.45 3.51 9.33 65.49 17.77 41.48 87.04 145.05 6.00 0.20 303.63 0.00 0.03 −0.18
    LW 7.47 4.32 18.02 77.55 17.77 57.43 101.60 169.22 13.60 0.20 375.37 0.00 0.17 0.03
    YW 7.49 4.89 24.01 67.21 26.13 82.95 116.20 145.05 <0.88 0.20 394.33 0.00 0.05 0.03
    ZT 7.52 13.42 58.90 162.00 22.99 264.81 98.12 193.40 5.38 10.93 723.37 0.00 0.53 0.56
    Pore water ZK3 7.23 3.84 20.71 99.96 34.49 63.81 48.84 338.45 31.15 19.14 472.64 55.00 0.31 0.50
    ZK2 7.35 4.97 14.92 133.07 42.78 72.99 82.75 364.34 94.25 30.71 651.66 55.00 0.54 0.94
    ZK7 7.22 1.89 11.54 72.14 23.33 8.69 23.68 332.66 22.30 22.48 347.62 100.00 0.19 0.23
    ZK9 7.36 0.13 15.44 134.43 31.35 60.62 52.66 350.53 76.20 23.24 546.47 70.00 0.56 0.83
    ZK11 7.22 1.10 20.18 105.13 22.99 33.50 86.68 320.31 31.15 18.19 461.31 200.00 0.30 0.27
    ZK13 7.26 4.08 19.57 98.24 31.35 54.24 55.82 350.53 37.00 17.45 475.93 190.33 0.35 0.54
    ZK12 7.29 3.48 25.48 84.45 21.95 25.52 50.60 362.62 3.51 21.16 396.74 132.06 0.35 0.45
    ZK16 7.32 7.77 13.87 82.73 11.50 31.91 28.83 253.83 26.68 14.59 330.69 241.00 0.24 −0.04
    Karstic water SMH 7.30 3.94 26.90 98.56 43.56 159.53 63.60 229.66 43.50 21.98 554.76 300.00 0.20 0.38
    MZ-1 7.32 0.99 11.93 95.22 26.34 35.10 75.55 296.14 28.71 16.12 422.23 400.00 0.33 0.44
    ZK17 7.30 3.89 17.72 73.50 23.30 24.57 23.95 380.18 8.44 18.50 365.84 371.00 0.33 0.50
    PY-X 7.35 5.81 32.84 79.28 29.26 28.71 61.30 308.23 14.96 25.81 406.79 800.00 0.30 0.52
    PY-D 7.38 7.77 33.58 67.21 29.26 22.33 61.32 302.18 7.98 27.63 381.23 800.00 0.26 0.50
    ZK19 7.30 3.38 12.90 130.30 12.16 45.62 39.76 364.34 31.12 19.45 458.02 259.80 0.53 0.37
    DC-3 7.28 2.73 13.84 91.88 35.46 44.67 76.20 332.40 17.96 21.61 449.33 300.00 0.32 0.56
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Hydrochemical types in Pingyu Mining area

    TypeHydrochemical typeAmountProportion(%)
    Pore water HCO3—Ca·Mg 6 42.86
    HCO3·SO4—Ca·Mg 4 28.57
    SO4·HCO3—Ca 1 7.14
    SO4·HCO3—Ca·Na 1 7.14
    SO4·HCO3·Cl—Ca·Mg 1 7.14
    Cl—Ca 1 7.14
    Pore water HCO3—Ca·Mg 6 75.00
    HCO3—Ca 2 25.00
    Karstic water HCO3—Ca·Mg 5 71.43
    HCO3—Ca 1 14.29
    Cl·HCO3—Ca·Mg 1 14.29
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Correlation analysis table

     K+Na+Ca2+Mg2+ClSO42−HCO3NO3H2SiO3TDS
    K+1.000         
    Na+0.2371.000        
    Ca2+−0.3770.3411.000       
    Mg2+−0.1160.3420.2771.000      
    Cl−0.1360.4740.5480.6291.000     
    SO42−−0.2660.3860.6280.5090.3471.000    
    HCO3−0.285−0.0840.439−0.036−0.3140.2551.000   
    NO3−0.2970.2530.8860.5130.6040.5890.3111.000  
    H2SiO30.0790.3360.3900.4380.1430.4940.3780.4461.000 
    TDS−0.3060.4500.9230.6020.7050.7340.3370.9300.5131.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Eigenvectors of the 3 PCs.

     123
    K+−0.304−0.1300.812
    Na+0.520−0.0230.617
    Ca2+0.7930.414−0.226
    Mg2+0.723−0.0630.229
    Cl0.872−0.3990.052
    SO42−0.6880.3920.070
    HCO30.0210.902−0.228
    NO30.8500.310−0.158
    H2SiO30.3910.6280.467
    TDS0.9360.321−0.045
    Total4.5021.9121.448
    Variance percentage (%)45.01619.12114.482
    Accumulate%45.01664.13778.620
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-15
  • 录用日期:  2023-12-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-15

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