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Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and controlling factors: Implications for climatic drought in karst areas

Guo Xiao-jiao Wang Wen-zhong Li Cheng-xi Wang Wei Shi Jian-sheng Miao Ying Hao Xing-bo Yuan Dao-xian

Guo XJ, Wang WZ, Li CX, et al. 2022. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and controlling factors: Implications for climatic drought in karst areas. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 267-284 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.005
Citation: Guo XJ, Wang WZ, Li CX, et al. 2022. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and controlling factors: Implications for climatic drought in karst areas. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 267-284 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.005

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.005

Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and controlling factors: Implications for climatic drought in karst areas

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  • Figure  1.  Annual and inter-annual variations of ET0 for Guilin, China from 1951 to 2015

    Figure  2.  Monthly change of precipitation, air temperature and ET0

    Figure  3.  Seasonal variations of ET0 during (a) spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn, and (d) winter in Guilin, China from 1951 to 2015

    Figure  4.  Trend in the annual aridity index (AI) for Guilin, China during 1951–2015. Dotted line represents the linear fitting line.

    Figure  5.  Seasonal variations in the aridity index in (a) spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn, and (d) winter for Guilin, China from 1951 to 2015. Dotted line is the linear trend.

    Figure  6.  Annual variability trends of meteorological factors during 1951–2015. (a) precipitation, (b) air temperature, (c) wind speed, (d) relative humidity, (e) mean vapor pressure, (f) sunshine duration, (g) minimum temperature, and (h) maximum temperature. Red dotted line represents linear regression of different meteorological variables, and gray dotted line represents 65-year average value.

    Figure  7.  Scatter plots of the (a) relationship between ET0 and aridity index (ET0/P) and (b) precipitation and aridity index for Guilin, China during 1951–2015. Red dashed line is the fitted line.

    Table  1.   Meteorological station site and mean meteorological variables of Guilin, China

    (m s−1)
    duration (h)
    Vapor pressure
    (mm a−1)
    Note: RH represents relative humidity; Tmean is the mean air temperature; U10 is the wind speed at the height of 10 m.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Interdecadal variation in the annual and seasonal reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in Guilin, China

    ET0 (mm)
    ET0 (mm)
    Summer ET0 (mm)Magnitude
    Autumn ET0 (mm)Magnitude
    ET0 (mm)
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Mean, maximum and minimum annual and seasonal ET0 (Unit: mm)

    Ratio (%)-18.132.433.216.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Annual, seasonal changing rates of reference evaporation (ET0) and climate factors in Guilin, China

    (mm 10a−1)
    (mm 10a−1)
    Mean temperature
    (°C 10a−1)
    (m s−1 10a−1)
    Relative humidity
    (% 10a−1)
    Vapor pressure (hpa 10a−1)Sunshine duration
    (h 10a−1)
    (°C 10a−1)
    Maximum temperature (°C 10a−1)
    * indicate significant at the level of 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Correlation coefficients between annual and seasonal climate factors and potential evapotranspiration in Guilin, China during 1951–2015

    PrecipitationMean temperatureWind speedRelative humidityVapor pressureSunshine durationMaximum temperatureMinimum temperature
    ** significant correlation at the 99% confidence level (two−tailed); * significant correlation at the 95% confidence level (two−tailed). Noting that the maximum correlation coefficients in each season are shown in bold.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  6.   Summary of previously estimated ET0 or pan evaporation (ETp) trends in China, and the primary causes of the trend

    LocationET0 or ETp trend
    Study periodCauseSource
    China−3.0, ↓1955−2000Solar irradianceLiu et al. 2004b
    China−8.56, ↓1961−2008Wind speed
    Sunshine duration
    Yin et al. 2010
    China−6.02, ↓1960−2007Liu et al. 2012
    China−3.45, ↓1956−2015Wind speedFan et al. 2016
    China−6.84, ↓1961−2013Wind speed
    Sunlight duration
    Wang et al. 2017
    China< −6.0, ↓1960−2012Wind speedChai et al. 2018
    Yangtze River basin−12.4, ↓1960−2000Net radiation
    Wind speed
    Xu et al. 2006
    Yangtze River basin−3.26, ↓
    ETp: −2.98, ↓
    1961−2000Wind speed
    Net radiation
    Wang et al. 2007
    Yangtze River Delta (Eastern China)22.51, ↑1957−2014Relative humidity
    Wind speed
    Xu et al. 2017
    Yellow River Basin0.02, ↑1961−2006Air temperature
    Relative humidity
    Liu et al. 2010
    Yellow River Basin−12.9, ↓1961−2012Sunshine hoursZhang et al. 2015
    Yellow River Basin−4.689, ↓1960−2012Wind speed
    Solar radiation
    She et al. 2017
    Heihe River Basin2.01, ↑1961−2014Relative humidityDu et al. 2016
    Songhua River Basin4.90, ↑1961−2010Mean air temperatureWen et al. 2014
    Wei River Basin1959−2008Relative humidity
    Air temperature
    Zuo et al. 2012
    The North China PlainETp: −7.09, ↓1981−2013Radiation
    Wind speed
    Mo et al. 2017
    Loess Plateau Region−10.30, ↓1961−2012Wind speedZhao et al. 2014
    Tibetan Plateau−9.6, ↓1960−2012Wang et al. 2014
    Qinghai−Tibetan Plateau−24.0, ↓1970−2011Net radiation
    Wind speed
    Zhang et al. 2018b
    Northwest China−30.0, ↓1955−2008Wind speedHuo et al. 2013
    Shenzhen City1954−2012Sunshine hours
    Vapor pressure deficit
    Liu et al. 2015
    Yunnan province−6.50, ↓1961−2004Sunshine durationFan and Thomas 2013
    Guizhou province−4.476, ↓1959−2011Sunshine durationGao et al. 2016
    Southwest China−4.34, ↓1960−2013Sunshine duration
    Wind speed
    Zhao et al. 2018
    Southwest China−5.13, ↓1961−2012Net radiationSun et al. 2016
    Note: The symbol “↑” and “↓” represent increasing and decreasing trends, respectively. The symbol “−” indicates that ET0 trend was not estimated. Noting that ETp specified in the table refers to pan evaporation, and the others represent ET0 estimated by the FAO56 Penman–Monteith method.
    下载: 导出CSV
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