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Determine the most appropriate strategy for groundwater management in arid and semi-arid regions, Abhar Plain, Iran

Fatemeh Einlo Mohammad Reza Ekhtesasi Mehdi Ghorbani Parviz Abdinejad

Einlo F, Ekhtesasi MR, Ghorbani M, et al. 2023. Determine the most appropriate strategy for groundwater management in arid and semi-arid regions, Abhar Plain, Iran. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(2): 97-115 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280010
Citation: Einlo F, Ekhtesasi MR, Ghorbani M, et al. 2023. Determine the most appropriate strategy for groundwater management in arid and semi-arid regions, Abhar Plain, Iran. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(2): 97-115 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280010

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280010

Determine the most appropriate strategy for groundwater management in arid and semi-arid regions, Abhar Plain, Iran

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  • Figure  1.  Location of Abhar Plain in Iran

    Figure  2.  Matrix of internal and external evaluation factors in SWOT

    Table  1.   The most important problems of groundwater resources destruction and imbalance in the Abhar Plain aquifer

    Main criteriaSub-criteriaAlternatives
    Climate change Decrease of precipitation -
    Increase of temperature -
    Changes in the precipitation pattern -
    Improper management of water consumption Agriculture Increase of cultivation area
    Drilling and exploitation of illegal wells
    Overdraft of exploitation license provisions for agricultural water wells
    Implementation of traditional irrigation methods
    Improper cultivation pattern
    Low price of water in the agricultural sector
    Lack of awareness and problems of agricultural promotion
    Industry Non-industrial consumption of water in the shadow of industry (change the type of unauthorized consumption)
    Overdraft of exploitation license provisions for industrial water wells
    Development of high water-consuming mines
    Establishment of high water-consuming industries that do not comply with the water capacity of the region
    Low price of water in the industry sector
    No recycle of industrial effluents in water circulation
    Drinking and sanitation Water consumption in agriculture and green space under the shadow of drinking and sanitation water
    Water consumption in the industrial sector under the shadow of drinking and sanitation water
    Water and sewage transmission network wear
    Uniformity of drinking water distribution network with green space
    Low price of water in the drinking and sanitation sector
    Cultural and promotional problems and lack of attention to proper water consumption and waste of household water
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   The best ways to protect groundwater resources and balance in the Abhar Plain aquifer

    Main criteriaSub-criteria
    Irrigation method Flood or surface irrigation method
    Drip irrigation method
    Subcortical irrigation method
    Injectable irrigation method
    Pressurized irrigation method
    Type of cultivation Greenhouse crops cultivation
    Plastic cultivation
    Free (outdoors) cultivation
    Pattern of cultivation Almond and walnut trees
    Apricot, pear, peach, cherry trees
    Low-water demand cereals (wheat and barley)
    High-water demand cereals and fodder (corn, alfalfa, clover)
    Oil seeds (sunflower, rapeseed)
    Vegetable cultivation
    Consumption management Installation of the smart water meter
    Filling the illegal wells
    Observance of the provisions of the water exploitation license
    Blackout of water wells
    Reformation and insulation of irrigation system and water transfer
    Increasing the stairs rate of water price
    Water pricing in different sections
    Reducing the development of water-intensive industries Reducing the development of the production of polymer and fiberglass sanitary pipes and tubes
    Reducing the development of the steel industry
    Reducing the development of the petrochemical and chemical industry
    Reducing the development of the textile industry
    Reducing the development of the electronic and technology industry
    Reducing the development of the food industry
    Reducing the development of wood production industries
    Reducing the development of water-intensive mines Reducing the development of sand and gravel mines
    Reducing the development of building stone mines
    Reducing the development of copper mines
    Reducing the development of industrial stone mines
    Reducing the non-industrial consumption Reducing industrial water consumption in the non-industrial sector
    Strengthen water recycling in the industry
    Separation of industrial water and drinking water
    Reducing evaporation from recirculation ponds
    Use of recycled water for irrigation of green spaces
    Drinking and sanitation and green space water consumption Separation of drinking water and sanitation pipelines
    Construction of the station’s water card pump in different parts of the city
    Distribution of gallons of drinking water throughout the city
    Gradual increase in water prices for the drinking and sanitation sector
    Separation of green space water from drinking water
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   The fundamental scale of values representing the intensities of judgments between two groundwater management criteria

    Intensity of importanceDefinitionDescription
    1, 1/1 Equal importance Two criteria are of equal importance
    2, 1/2 Weak importance
    3, 1/3 Moderate importance Moderate importance of one criterion over the other
    4, 1/4 Moderate plus importance
    5, 1/5 Strong importance Strong importance of one criterion over the other
    6, 1/6 Strong plus importance
    7, 1/7 Very strong importance Very strong importance of one criterion over the other, evidence based
    8, 1/8 More, more strong importance
    9, 1/9 Extreme importance Unquestionable or demonstrated support of the importance of one criterion over the other
    Notes: From Saaty and Vargas (2006).
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Random index for matrix (Reproduced from Saaty, 1994)

    Order of matrix12345678910
    Random index (RI)000.520.891.111.251.351.401.451.49
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Analysis of internal factors (Strengths)

    NoStrengthsRelative importanceRankFinal value
    1 Participation of exploiters in groundwater management (management, protection, utilization) 0.120 3 0.359
    2 Promoting the public awareness of proper water use to reduce water consumption 0.115 3 0.346
    3 Use of mineral potentials instead of water-loving agriculture 0.081 1 0.081
    4 Suitable climatic conditions for the cultivation of low-water demand species 0.123 3 0.368
    5 Participation and cooperation of the people with the relevant authorities 0.105 2 0.210
    6 Cohesion and solidarity between different organizations and social communities 0.114 3 0.342
    7 Replacement of consumption water from groundwater resources with runoff extraction 0.093 1 0.093
    8 Suitable geographical location and connection with the three metropolises of Tehran, Tabriz, the Qazvin to develop low-water demand industries 0.145 4 0.580
    9 Increase the quality of consumption water 0.104 2 0.207
    Overall strength rating 2.590
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    Table  6.   Analysis of internal factors (Weaknesses)

    NoWeaknessesRelative importanceRankFinal value
    1 Insufficient income, lack of productive employment and strong dependence of the rural economy on agricultural products and activities 0.113 4 0.450
    2 Lack of sufficient information and knowledge among farmers and exploiters and their old age 0.102 3 0.305
    3 Change of hydraulic gradient and influx of saline water to fresh water 0.064 1 0.064
    4 Increased salinity in soil resources 0.065 1 0.065
    5 Lack of attention to the coherent organizational structure in water resources management 0.098 3 0.294
    6 Existence of traditional irrigation systems, low irrigation efficiency, productivity of production factors (water and soil) and performance at the level and high production costs 0.126 4 0.504
    7 Lack of intellectual space to raise awareness about water crisis issue 0.093 2 0.186
    8 Over-exploitation of permitted wells 0.118 4 0.470
    9 The exploitation of illegal wells 0.124 4 0.494
    10 Lack of construction and completion of the wastewater treatment plant to benefit from treated water in agriculture, industry and green space 0.099 3 0.297
    Overall weaknesses rating 3.130
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  7.   Analysis of external factors (Opportunities)

    NoOpportunitiesRelative importanceRankFinal value
    1 Ability to provide information to strengthen culture in groundwater reclamation and balancing 0.093 1 0.093
    2 Possibility of implementing the Danab Comprehensive Plan (National Student Water Rescue Plan) from which the concepts of quantity and quality of water, virtual water, intrinsic and economic value of water could be raised 0.087 1 0.087
    3 Possibility to increase the value of agricultural products by improving the quality and proper processing 0.102 2 0.204
    4 Participation of clerics and involving them to promote knowledge related to water resources 0.088 1 0.088
    5 Equipping water wells with smart water meters to control consumption 0.111 4 0.443
    6 Watershed management and aquifer artificial recharge measures to prevent floods and loss of water resources and surface runoff extraction 0.118 4 0.472
    7 Establishment of various cooperatives to create local markets for buying and selling water 0.091 1 0.091
    8 Optimize the distribution network to reduce water loss 0.093 1 0.093
    9 Land consolidation and prevention of land fragmentation through integrated pressurized irrigation systems 0.112 4 0.447
    10 Amend and facilitate upstream laws to change the type of agricultural water consumption to other uses 0.105 3 0.316
    Overall rating of opportunities 2.330
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  8.   Analysis of external factors (Threats)

    NoThreatsRelative importanceRankFinal value
    1 Occurrence of migration phenomenon and increase of population and exploitation in the region 0.061 1 0.061
    2 Occurrence of drought and climate change (scarcity and improper distribution of temporal and spatial precipitation) 0.106 4 0.425
    3 Insufficient funds and facilities 0.100 3 0.299
    4 Lack of proper cultivation pattern 0.093 3 0.279
    5 Lack of active and legal supervision from the Ministry of Energy and Agricultural Jihad in water consumption in the agricultural sector 0.093 3 0.279
    6 Expansion of industries with high-water demand in the plain 0.040 3 0.283
    7 Lack of stock market for agricultural products 0.078 2 0.156
    8 Impossibility and cost of intra-basin and extra-basin water transfer projects to the region 0.088 2 0.175
    9 Absence of beneficiaries in the top-down planning and decision-making sector 0.103 4 0.412
    10 Uncertainty about the true value of water in agriculture, industry, drinking and health 0.107 4 0.429
    11 Existence of upstream rules in issuing exploitation licenses and the existence of rent 0.077 2 0.153
    Overall rating of threats 2.950
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    Table  9.   The framework of pairwise comparison of the problem ofaquifer imbalance in Abhar Plain

    CriteriaWater consumption managementClimate changeStandardized weights /%
    Water consumption management2.6344872.5
    Climate change27.5
    Inconsistency rate: 0.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  10.   The general framework of factors causing degradation and groundwater imbalance in the Abhar Plain aquifer

    CriteriaStandardized weights /%CriteriaStandardized weights /%
    Drilling and exploitation of illegal wells 18.2 Change the precipitation pattern 3.2
    Overdraft of exploitation license provisions for agricultural water wells 9.6 Increase in the temperature 2.7
    Reduction of precipitation 9.3 Water consumption in agriculture and green space under the shadow of drinking and sanitation 2.6
    Implementation of traditional irrigation methods 7.6 No use of industrial effluents in water circulation 2.5
    Low price of water in the agriculture sector 6.1 Identity of drinking water distribution network with green space 2.2
    Increase the area under cultivation 5.7 Development of the mines with high-water consumption 2.1
    Improper cultivation pattern 4.8 Cultural and promotional problems and lack of attention to proper water consumption and waste of household water 2.0
    Overdraft of exploitation license provisions in industrial water wells 3.8 Low price of water in the industry sector 1.9
    Non-industrial consumption in the shadow of industry 3.6 Water consumption in the industrial sector under the shadow of drinking and sanitation 1.8
    Establishment of water-intensive industries that do not comply with the region 3.5 Low price of water in the drinking and sanitation sector 1.8
    Lack of awareness and problems of agricultural promotion 3.4 Water and sewage transmission network wear 1.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  11.   Prioritized solutions for strengthening groundwater resources and balance in the Abhar plain aquifer

    PrioritySub-criteria
    10.1Filling the illegal wells
    7.6Greenhouse crops cultivation
    7.6Install the smart water meter
    7.1Observance of the provisions of the water exploitation license
    6.3Water pricing in different sections
    6.0Drip irrigation method
    6.0Pressurized irrigation method
    4.9Plastic cultivation method
    4.0Subcortical irrigation method
    3.9Low-water demand cereals (wheat and barley) cultivation
    3.1Injectable irrigation method
    3.1Free (outdoors) cultivation method
    2.7Almond and walnut trees cultivation
    2.7Control and reduction of industrial water consumption in the non-industrial sector
    2.3Flood or surface irrigation method
    1.9Apricot, pear, peach, and cherry trees cultivation
    1.7Reducing the development of sand and gravel mines
    1.6Strengthen water recycling in the industry
    1.5Gradual increase in water prices
    1.3Irrigation of green space with water from recycling
    1.2Construction of station card pumps in different parts of the city
    1.2Distribution of gallons of drinking water throughout the city
    1.1Oil seeds (sunflower, rapeseed) cultivation
    1.1Reducing the development of the steel industry
    1.0Vegetable cultivation
    1.0Reducing the copper mines
    0.8Reformation and insulation of irrigation system and water transfer
    0.8Separation of industrial water and drinking water
    0.7Blackout of water wells
    0.7Reducing the development of the textile industry
    0.7Separation of green space water from drinking water
    0.6Cereals and fodder (corn, alfalfa, clover) cultivation with high-water demand
    0.5Reducing the development of the petrochemical and chemical industry
    0.5Reducing the development of the food industry
    0.5Reducing the development of building stone mines
    0.5Reducing evaporation from recirculation ponds
    0.4Reducing the development of industrial stone mines
    0.4Separation of drinking water and sanitation pipelines
    0.3Reducing the development of the electronic and technology industry
    0.2Reducing the development of polymer and fiberglass sanitary pipes and the production of the tubes industry
    0.2Reducing the development of wood production industries
    0.2Gradual increase in the price of water for drinking and sanitation
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-21
  • 录用日期:  2023-01-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-06-15
  • 刊出日期:  2023-06-30

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