• ISSN 2305-7068
  • ESCI CABI CAS Scopus GeoRef AJ CNKI 维普收录
高级检索

留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

Compilation of hydrogeological map of China

ZHANG Jian-kang DONG Hua CHENG Yan-pei YUE Chen LIU Kun

Jian-kang ZHANG, Hua DONG, Yan-pei CHENG, et al. 2020: Compilation of hydrogeological map of China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8(4): 381-395. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.008
Citation: Jian-kang ZHANG, Hua DONG, Yan-pei CHENG, et al. 2020: Compilation of hydrogeological map of China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8(4): 381-395. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.008

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.008

Compilation of hydrogeological map of China

More Information
    • 关键词:
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  
  • Figure  1.  Map of technical route

    Figure  2.  Cartographic standard for groundwater type and water-bearing degree

    Figure  3.  Cartographic method of underlying water-bearing formations with water supply significance and associated groundwater yield levels

    Table  1.   GIS layers and associated layout for hydrogeological map

    Serial No. Classification Name Contents Graphic object
    1 Geographic layer Geographic elements Rivers (tertiary tributaries), main lakes, important summits, deserts and their name labels; boundaries at the level of provincial administrative division and above; the place of residence at the prefecture level and above and the professional contents required Line graphic object
    2 Background layer Others Boundary of groundwater type Line graphic object
    Boundary of underlying aquifer with water supply significance Line graphic object
    Thickness isoline of permafrost (m) Line graphic object
    Upper and low limits of permafrost thickness (m) Line graphic object
    Catchment divide Line graphic object
    Major fault lines Line graphic object
    Glacier and snow cover Zone graphic object
    Crater Dot graphic object
    3 Thematic layer Groundwater type and water richness level of water-bearing formations Pore water in unconsolidated sediments, fissure-cavity water in carbonate rocks, pore-fissure water in clastic rocks, fissure water in magmatic and metamorphic rocks as well as water in frozen layer Zone graphic object
    4 Underlying water-bearing formations with water supply significance Underlying confined unconsolidated water-bearing formations, carbonate water-bearing formations underlying other rocks, clastic water-bearing formations underlying unconsolidated water-bearing rocks Zone graphic object
    5 Distribution area of saline water Brackish water, semi-saline water, saline water and no fresh water area within groundwater extraction depth in coastal plain Zone graphic object
    6 Groundwater burial characteristics Burial depth isoline of confined water-bearing formation roof, burial depth isoline of deep freshwater aquifer roof in accumulation plain, water beneath frozen layer in middle and low-altitude base rocks of plateau, areas with sparse phreatic aquifers or with local absence of aquifer Zone graphic object Line graphic object
    7 Controlling water points Large and famous springs, outflow spring group, thermal spring, and outlet of underground rivers Dot graphic object
    Subterranean River Line graphic object
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Regional distribution characteristics of groundwater in China

    Groundwater type and water-bearing formations Distribution area Distribution characteristics
    Pore water of unconsolidated sediments Pore water in alluvial- pluvial sediments of accumulation plain It is principally found in the large plains of the eastern part of China. There are large plains, flat terrains, and very thick unconsolidated sediments with the lithology of sand and sand gravels, which have loose layered structure. Songnen Plain is a water storage and convergence basin with abundant groundwater resources, where groundwater converges from all the sides.
    The western part of the Liaohe River Plain features a very thick sand layer during the Quaternary period. With regard to lithology, sand particles from upstream to downstream get finer and clay interlayer increases in number and thickness. Further southwards lies the Lower Liaohe River Plain, where the terrain inclines from the north to the south. There is the dust-pan-shaped basin with its opening facing the sea. The sand layer during the Quaternary Period is well developed and the thickness is considerably changeable (almost 40~300 m). The shallow groundwater, mostly saline water, is of poor quality, but the deep confined water has abundant water resources and satisfactory water quality (ZHANG Zong-hu et al. 2004).
    The hydrogeological conditions in different areas of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are quite different. In the north to the Yellow River, the alluvial fan of sand gravels during the Quaternary Period is highly developed with the thickness of 40~60 m. This alluvial fan gently unfolds along the piedmont and assumes the multi-layer superimposed sediments. The front edges of some alluvial-pluvial fans extend rather far. With the depth of more than 120~200 m under the ground, the aquifer is featured by rough particles, strong permeability, smooth runoff, high water-bearing degree and good water quality. Eastward from the front edge of alluvial-pluvial fan is the central plain. With the depth of 60~80 m underground is principally phreatic water or slightly confined water with low water-bearing degree and complex change to water quality. Brackish water plays a major role, and freshwater is found available in the form of belt only within some areas. The confined water is widely distributed below the depth of 80 m, and shows the burial features of being shallow in the west and deep in the east (ZHANG Zhao-ji et al. 2009).
    The aquifers in Sanjiang Plain are composed of thick pebble gravels and sand gravels. These water-bearing formations gradually thicken from the peripheral parts to the center, and can be over 200 m thick in the center.
    The Hetao Plain is made up of several enclosed basins. In this plain, the unconsolidated sediments during the Quaternary Period are 600 m thick and aquifer has the lithology of sand and sand gravels, where phreatic and confined water is available. Specifically, phreatic water is widespread and steady, and confined water, which is widely distributed as well, shows different depths as the distribution of silt layers varies. Some confined water even bursts out of ground surface.
    Pore water of unconsolidated sediments Pore water in alluvial-pluvial sediments of accumulation plain It is principally found in the large plains of the eastern part of China. There are large plains, flat terrains, and very thick unconsolidated sediments with the lithology of sand and sand gravels, which have loose layered structure. The Jianghan Plain to the south of the Qinling Mountains is a small plain with a total area of over 60 000 km2. With broad and flat terrain, this plain enjoys sufficient precipitation, well-developed water system and dense network of rivers. The unconsolidated sediments during the Quaternary Period are about 170 m thick. The phreatic aquifers are less developed and the confined water plays a dominant role across the whole region. The water-bearing degree of confined water in aquifers proves quite strong in the center of the plain, but gradually gets weaker toward the edge. The confined water has the depth of 0.4~3.0 m.
    The shallow aquifers of the Chengdu Plain mainly consists of gravel and pebble layer with the thickness of 20~50 m, strong water-bearing degree (ZHANG Zong-hu et al. 2004).
    Pore water in alluvial sediments of inter-mountain basin Widely distributed throughout the country. The faulted basin is generated after the part of mountainous region is subject to structural control. With the washing by rivers and the gradual accumulation of unconsolidated sediments, there are some small-scale inter-mountain basins (valleys) of different thicknesses. The pore water of these unconsolidated sediments are widely distributed and of considerable quantity. In the bedrock-based mountains of southern China, the inter-mountain basins are widely distributed. The groundwater of this type has the features that distribution of aquifers is closely related to tectonic causes. In most cases, their respective independent hydrogeological systems are created, and the enclosed and semi-enclosed confined artesian basins show their characteristics to develop their independent water convergence centers. Yet, the depth of groundwater varies from one place to another (CHEN Meng-xiong and MA Feng-shan, 2002).
    Pore water in alluvial and marine sediments Mainly located along the eastern coastal zone of China. To the north of the Hangzhou Bay are primarily the interactive sedimentations of alluvial and marine sediments as a result of seaward movement of great plains or piedmont rivers, so there emerges the pore aquifers of unconsolidated sediments in the coastal plain or delta. Groundwater has the deferred runoff. For instance, the phreatic aquifers in the costal zones along the Bohai Sea and the Yellow River are mostly composed of marine mucky clay together with silty sand. With shallow groundwater, the aquifers have weak water yield quality and poor water quality, but the confined water is usually available in the deep water-bearing formation. With varied depth and in most cases, the depth of 80~200 m or even more, the confined water boasts satisfactory quality and sufficient supply. Leiqiong area alone can be categorized as the east-west down-faulted zone during the Cenozoic Era. The unconsolidated sediments are more than 3 000 m thick and the confined groundwater is stored in large quantities.
    Pore water of unconsolidated sediments Pore water in alluvial-plubial sediments of inland basin Distributed in the northwestern part of China The Junggar basin, the Tarim basin, the Qaidam basin are distributed in the northwestern part of China. The marginal areas of these basins are extensive, and the alluvial-pluvial sediments are hugely thick. On the top of the widely available piedmont sloping plains is the Gobi gravel layer. All the basins are surrounded by high snow-capped mountains, which serve as favorable sources to recharge the basin groundwater.
    Pore water in loess layer of loess plateau Widely distributed in China, but mainly in the midstream and downstream areas along the Yellow River The loess layers are characterized by thick and continued sediments. The distribution of pore water in loess layer is related to precipitation, and restricted by the loess landform.
    Pore water in aeolian sand dune of desert Deserts constitute about 1/9 of the total land area in China. Most of deserts are located in the middle of landlocked basins across the northern and north-western parts of China. The main deserts include the Taklamakan Desert, the Gurbantunggut Desert, the Kumtagh Desert, the Badain Jaran Desert, the Tengger Desert, the Ulanbuh Desert and the Mu Us Desert. Climatically, deserts are featured by huge droughts, strong evaporation and insufficient surface water. Groundwater is mainly found in phreatic water of sand dunes or porous water beneath sand dunes.
    Fissure-cavity water in carbonate rock The fissure-cavity water in peak clusters Primarily distributed in the Pearl River Basin in the southernmost part of China. Carbonate rocks are found in many parts of China. The fissure-cavity water that is available in huge quantity shows the features like abundant resources, uneven distribution in terms of geological distribution and noticeable changes to water level and quantity over time. However, the fissure-cavity water within large areas has a limited change to water quality and the low salinity (JIAO Shu-qing and DAI Xi-sheng, 1988).
    Fissure-cavity water in karst hills Mainly distributed in the northern part of China.
    Fissure-cavity-opening water in karst mountainous area
    Pore-fissure water in clastic rocks Pore-fissure water in sandy gravels of hilly and mountainous areas (1) In the eastern part of Xizang, the western mountains of Sichuan and the Sichuan basin In the eastern part of Xizang, the western mountains of Sichuan and the Sichuan Basin, there are lots of slightly metamorphic sandstones, sandy gravels, shale and sandstones during Mesozoic Era, where sandstones are abundant in water resources. In the western and northwestern parts of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the northern mountains of Guizhou Province, sandy shale, sandstones, and mudstones mainly during Paleozoic Period and sometimes during Mesozoic Period. Fissures are developed to different degrees and water-bearing degree stays at low level. There are limited water contents and considerable water quantity in some areas.
    (2) In the western and northwestern parts of Guangxi Zhuang Auto-nomous Region and the northern mountains of Guizhou Province
    Pore-fissure water in laterite layer of hilly basin The laterite layers can be found in southwestern region, northwestern region as well as mid-southern and southeastern regions in China. In China, laterite layers mostly came into existence during the long geological history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic Era. Major sedimentation periods include Triassic Period, Jurassic Period, Cretaceous Period Paleogene Period and Neogene Period, and are widely distributed in the southwestern, northwestern, middle and southern parts of China.
    Fissure water in magmatic and metaphoric rocks Fissure water in magmatic rocks of mountainous and hilly areas Mainly distributed in the bedrock outcrop area of mountainous area In the areas with the fissure water of metamorphic rocks are mainly the mudstones, which have the poor water storage and conducting performance. Fissures are less developed, but in case of the strata with limestone, the abundant water-bearing strata will be available. In the granite area along the southeastern coast of China, the anti-weathering capability is rather low. The weathering process usually results in sand and mild clay with small water contents and weak permeability. So the water-bearing degree in the water-bearing strata is rather weak across the igneous rock area with considerable precipitation in the southeast of China.
    Fissure water in metamorphic rocks of mountains areas
    Pore-fissure water in lava
    Water in frozen layer Water above frozen layer in high-latitude base rocks of mountainous area Mainly distributed in the nor-thernmost parts of Northeast China and Northwest China and in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Tundra constitutes about 1/5 of the national total area in China. The groundwater in these areas is mainly frozen layer water. Tundra usually has the thickness of dozens of meters to over 100 m. The thickness may change as the terrain fluctuates, and especially horizontally. In the frozen soil areas as a whole, the water above tundra is generally found in the lowland or slopes, and gets recharged from atmospheric precipitation or the molten water of snow and ice. With good water quality but limited water quantity, the water above tundra cannot be exploited fully as the source of water. The water beneath tundra, as confined water, is usually affected by changes to tundra thickness and controlled by regional structure. Therefore, the fault valleys and basins are the perfect reservoir of water beneath trundra. Under the perennially frozen layer with the thickness of 10~50 m is confined water or artesian water.
    Water above frozen layer in middle and lowlatitude basse rocks of plateau
    Water above frozen layer in middle and low latitude uncon-solidated sediments of plateau
    下载: 导出CSV
  • AN Le-sheng, ZHAO Quan-sheng, YE Si-yuan, et al. 2012. Hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanism of shallow groundwater in the yellow river delta. Environmental Science, 33(2):370-378. Doi: 0250-3301(2012)02-0370-09.
    CHEN Meng-xiong. 2007. A collection of papers on researches of groundwater in China. Beijing: China Land Press: 4.
    CHEN Meng-xiong, MA Feng-shan. 2002. Groundwater resources and environment of China. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 24-32.
    CHENG Qiang, KOU Xiao-bing, HUANG Shao-bin, et al. 2004. The distributes and geologic environment characteristics of red beds in China. Journal of Engineering Geology, 12(1): 34-40. Doi: 1004-9665/2004/12(01)-0034-07.
    CHEN Qian, MAO Yu, LI Cheng. 2013. Hydroc-hemistry characteristics of shallow ground-water in redbed of Luzhou, Sichuan. China Measurement & Testing, 39(6): 42-45. Doi: 10.11857/j.issn.1674-5124.2013.06.012.
    CHENG Xu-xue, CHEN Chong-xi, YAN Cheng-yun, et al. 2008. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources rational exploitation and utilization in Shule River Basin of Hexi Corridor. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 27-31.
    CHEN Shu-hua, LIN Ci-luan, XU Wei-guang, et al. 2020. Age and Tectonic significance of volcanic rocks in cretaceous red beds in Fujian. Earth Science, 45(7): 2508-2523. Doi: 1000-2383(2020)07-2508-16.
    FENG Wen-kai, FANG Hong-yu, LI Yi-he, et al. 2020. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in red-layer area. Water Power, 46(2):12-16, 84. Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0559-9342.2020.02.003.
    GUO Yong-chun, XIE Qiang, WEN Jiang-quan. 2007. Red beds distribution and engineering geological problem in China, Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 34(6):67-71. Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-3665.2007.06.016.
    HAN Ying, YAN Shi-long, MA Han-tian, et al. 2008. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources and their environ-mental problems in Six basins of Shanxi Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 71-77.
    HOU Guang-cai, ZHANG Mao-sheng. 2004. Groundwater resources and their sustainable utilization in the Ordos basin. Xi'an: Shaanxi Science and Technology Press: 129-139.
    JIAO Shu-qing, DAI Xi-sheng, 1988. Explanation of the hydrogeologic map of China. Beijing: China Cartographic Publishing House: 5-16.
    LI Guo-fen, WEI Fu-cai, et al. 1992. Explanation of the karst hydrogeologic map of China. Beijing: China Cartographic Publishing House: 10-13.
    LI Zhi, YU Meng-wen, ZHANG Li-ling, et al. 2009. Investigation and assessment of ground-water resources and their environmental issues in the west Liaohe Plain. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 66-81.
    LIU Bin, MEN Guo-fa, WANG Zhan-he, et al. 2008. Groundwater exploration in the Tarim Basin. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 16-18.
    LI Rui-min, YIN Zhi-qiang, WANG Yi, et al. 2018. Geological resources and environmental carrying capacity evaluation review, theory, and practice in China, China Geology, 1: 556-565. doi: 10.31035/cg2018050
    SHEN Tian-de, CHEN Xu-guang, WANG Wen-ke, et al. 2009. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources and its environmental issues in the Junggar basin. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 48-60.
    WANG Yong-gui, GUO Hong-ye, LI Jian, et al. 2008. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources and their environ-mental issues in the Qaidam basin. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 117-131.
    WEN Dong-guang, LIN Liang-jun, SUN Ji-chao, et al. 2012. Groundwater quality and contamination assessment in the main plains of Eastern China. Earth Science-Journal of China University of Geosciences. 37(2):220-228. Doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2012.022.
    WU Xue-hua, QIAN Hui, YU Dong-mei, et al. 2009. Inveatigation and assessment of rational allocation of groundwater resources in the Yinchuan Plain. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 29-36.
    YANG Xiang-kui, YANG Wen, ZHANG Feng-long, et al. 2008. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources potential and ecoenvironment geology in Sanjiang Plain. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 30-36.
    ZHANG Zong-hu, SUN Ji-chao, JING Ji-hong, et al. 2006. Groundwater resources map of China (1:4 000 000). Beijing: China Cartographic Publishing House.
    ZHANG Fa-wang, CHENG Yan-pei, DONG Hua, et al. 2012. Groundwater serial maps of Asia (1:8 000 000). Beijing: China Cartographic Publishing House.
    ZHANG Zong-hu, LI Lie-rong, CHEN De-hua, et al. 2004. Groundwater resources of China. Beijing: Sinomap Press: 32-39.
    ZHANG Zhao-ji, FEI Yu-hong, CHEN Zong-yu, et al. 2009. Investigation and assessment of sustainable utilization of groundwater resources in the North China Plain. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 30-43.
    ZHANG Zong-hu, LI Lie-rong, CHEN De-hua, et al. 2004. The atlas of groundwater resources and environment of China. Beijing: Sinomap Press.
    ZHAO Hai-qing, ZHAO Yong-sheng, YANG Xiang-kui, et al. 2009. Investigation and assessment of groundwater resources and their related environmental problems in the Songnen Plain. Beijing: Geological Publishing House: 24-27.
  • [1] Temesgen Mekuriaw Manderso, Yitbarek Andualem Mekonnen, Tadege Aragaw Worku2023:  Application of GIS based analytical hierarchy process and multicriteria decision analysis methods to identify groundwater potential zones in Jedeb Watershed, Ethiopia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 221-236. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280019
    [2] Feng-dan Yu, Gang Qiao, Kai Wang, Xu Zhang2023:  Investigation of groundwater characteristics and its influence on Landslides in Heifangtai Plateau using comprehensive geophysical methods, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 171-182. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280015
    [3] Parisa Kazerani, Ali Naghi Ziaei, Kamran Davari2023:  Determining safe yield and mapping water level zoning in groundwater resources of the Neishabour Plain, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 47-54. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280005
    [4] YANG Liu, ZHANG Ying-ping, WEN Xue-ru, PEI Li-xin, LIU Bing2020:  Characteristics of groundwater and urban emergency water sources optimazation in Luoyang, China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 298-304. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.03.010
    [5] ZHOU Nian-qing, LI Tian-shui, ZHAO Shan, ZHAO Shan, XIA Xue-min2019:  Characteristics of the main inorganic nitrogen accumulation in surface water and groundwater of wetland succession zones, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7, 173-181. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2019.02.008
    [6] Nouayti Abderrahime, Khattach Driss, Hilali Mohamed, Nouayti Nordine2019:  Mapping potential areas for groundwater storage in the High Guir Basin (Morocco):Contribution of remote sensing and geographic information system, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7, 309-322. doi: DOI: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2019.04.002
    [7] WEN Xue-ru, CHENG Yan-pei, DONG Hua, WANG Chun-xiao, ZHANG Er-yong, LIU Kun2019:  Interpretation for technical requirements of mapping regional groundwater resources, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7, 288-294. doi: DOI: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2019.03.009
    [8] MA Bai-heng, LIU Shuo, WANG Xin-zhou, ZHAI Xing, LI Hong-chao, LI Chen-xi2018:  A preliminary study on the spatial distribution characteristics and causes of strontium-rich mineral water in the Dushan complex, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 115-125. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.02.005
    [9] HOU Guang-cai, YIN Li-he, XU Dan-dan2017:  Hydrogeology of the Ordos Basin, China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 104-115.
    [10] SONG Chao, HAN Gui-lin, WANG Pan, SHI Ying-chun, HE Ze2017:  Hydrochemical and isotope characteristics of spring water discharging from Qiushe Loess Section in Lingtai, northwestern China and their implication to groundwater recharge, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 364-373.
    [11] ZHOU Xun2017:  Arsenic distribution and source in groundwater of Yangtze River Delta economic region, China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 343-353.
    [12] LIU Chun-yan, SUN Ji-chao, JING Ji-hong, ZHANG Ying, GUO Wei-xuan2016:  Distribution characteristics and source of BTEX in groundwater in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P. R. China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 238-246.
    [13] CHENG Tang-pei, LIU Xing-wei, SHAO Jing-Li, CUI Ya-li2016:  Review of the algebraic linear methods and parallel implementation in numerical simulation of groundwater flow, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 12-17.
    [14] ZHOU Li-ling, CHENG Zhe, DUAN Lei, WANG Wen-ke2015:  Distribution of groundwater salinity and formation mechanism of fresh groundwater in an arid desert transition zone, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 268-279.
    [15] BI Xue-li, XU Qi, ZHANG Fa-wang2015:  Application of remote sensing technique to mapping of the map series of karst geology in China and Southeast Asia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 186-191.
    [16] ZHANG Fa-wang, CHENG Yan-pei2015:  Progress on the mapping of groundwater resources and environment in Asia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 105-117.
    [17] CHENG Yan-pei, DONG Hua2015:  Groundwater system division and compilation of Groundwater Resources Map of Asia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 127-135.
    [18] DONG Hua, GE Li-qiang2015:  Groundwater ecological environment and the mapping of Asia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 118-126.
    [19] YI Qing, GE Li-qiang, CHENG Yan-pei, DONG Hua, LIU Kun, ZHANG Jian-kang, YUE Chen2015:  Compilation of Groundwater Quality Map and study of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in Asia, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 176-185.
    [20] 2013:  Structural Control on Groundwater Distribution and Flow in the South of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 1, 1-8.
  • 加载中
图(3) / 表ll (2)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  718
  • HTML全文浏览量:  364
  • PDF下载量:  41
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-28
  • 录用日期:  2020-07-17
  • 刊出日期:  2020-12-28

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回