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Evaluation of groundwater resource potential by using water balance model: A case of Upper Gilgel Gibe Watershed, Ethiopia

Abebe Wondmagegn Taye

Abebe WT. 2022. Evaluation of groundwater resource potential by using water balance model: A case of Upper Gilgel Gibe Watershed, Ethiopia. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 209-222 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.001
Citation: Abebe WT. 2022. Evaluation of groundwater resource potential by using water balance model: A case of Upper Gilgel Gibe Watershed, Ethiopia. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 209-222 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.001

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.001

Evaluation of groundwater resource potential by using water balance model: A case of Upper Gilgel Gibe Watershed, Ethiopia

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    Corresponding author: wondmagegn.abebe@ju.edu.et
  • * The report is available in Ethiopia’s Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) library.
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    * The report is available in Ethiopia’s Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) library.
  • Figure  1.  Location map of the study area

    Figure  2.  Elevation (a), soil map (b), land use and land cover map (c) and geology (d) of the study area

    (NMn = Very highly permeable volcanic sand; PNv1 = Lower felsic, volcanic, and sedimentary formation; PNv2 = Upper felsic volcanic; Q = Quaternary sediments)

    Figure  3.  Isohyetal map of the study area

    Figure  4.  Long term hydrograph of the Gilgel Gibe River with separated base flow

    Figure  5.  Location and types of wells collected

    Table  1.   Data collected, source and purpose

    No.Data collectedSources of dataPurpose
    1 Long term meteorological data (1985-2017) National meteorological service agency (NMSA) of Ethiopia To determine aerial depth of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration
    2 Hydrological data (1990-2013) Ministry of water, irrigation and energy office (MoWIE) For baseflow separation and to determine Runoff
    3 Digital elevation model (DEM) 30 m × 30 m resolution ftp://ftp.glcf.umd.edu/glcf/Landsat/WRS2/ server To yield essential derivative products such as slope, flow accumulation and flow direction in the process of watershed delineation
    4 Soil data Ministry of water, irrigation and energy office (MoWIE) and also food and agricultural organization (FAO) soil classification map was used in combination To determine available water capacity for different soil types and to determine actual evapotranspiration
    5 Land use land cover data Ministry of water, irrigation and energy office (MoWIE)
    6 Geology and hydrogeology
    7 Existing borehole data Jimma zone water, mineral, and energy office, well completion reports of Jimma University and Jimma airport, from previous study around the watershed and Jimma zone water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) report To locate existing boreholes in the watershed and to determine groundwater abstraction
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Mean monthly aerial depth of precipitation by isohyetal method

    No.Isohyets intervalMean isohyetal value, P1-2 (mm)The area between isohyets, A1-2 (km2)Col. 3 * Col. 4
    11 460-1 4801 4704.416 479.5
    21 480-1 5001 4905.678 453.5
    31 500-1 5201 5107.7911 763.0
    41 520-1 5401 53014.7322 531.2
    51 540-1 5601 55033.2951 597.8
    61 560-1 5801 57060.5695 078.1
    71 580-1 6001 59090.92144 558.6
    81 600-1 6201 610206.30332 137.0
    91 620-1 6401 630222.33362 394.6
    101 640-1 6601 650349.81577 190.4
    111 660-1 6801 6701 231.832 057 152.1
    121 680-1 7001 690313.83530 367.9
    131 700-1 7201 710152.26260 371.2
    141 720-1 7401 73092.11159 358.8
    151 740-1 7601 75053.2393 146.3
    161 760-1 7801 77036.0263 758.3
    171 780-1 8001 79026.2546 988.9
    181 800-1 8201 81020.4036 928.8
    191 820-1 8401 83018.3733 610.1
    Annual aerial depth of precipitation1 664.5 mm/a
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   PET of the study area according to modified Penman method

    T (°C)18.4319.0219.3818.9918.6517.8116.9117.2017.6017.6217.7317.67
    T (°F)65.1766.2466.8866.1765.5864.0662.4462.9663.6963.7163.9163.80
    ea (mm/d)15.916.416.916.416.115.314.414.715.
    RH (% )56.754.660.569.074.980.783.982.779.669.862.058.3
    ed (mm/d)9.018.9510.2311.3212.0612.3512.0912.1612.0310.549.428.81
    U2 (m/s)0.930.970.990.960.940.830.800.800.830.920.920.92
    n (hrs./d)
    N (hrs./d)11.711.912.012.212.412.512.412.312.111.911.511.7
    Ra (mm/d)13.2514.1614.9015.0814.7314.4514.5714.8314.8214.4013.4712.95
    RI(1-r) (mm/d)5.495.855.935.605.514.863.954.255.055.735.865.65
    αTa4 (mm/d)14.5214.6214.6914.6214.5514.4012.2414.3014.3714.3714.3914.38
    Ro (mm/d)2.402.422.191.911.851.611.091.351.662.112.462.54
    PET (mm/d)2.873.173.303.082.932.512.152.212.612.942.942.81
    PET (mm/month)89.0189.78102.3892.4290.9475.3166.5868.4778.4491.1588.3287.08
    PET (mm/a)1019.89
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Available water capacity of root zone and area coverage of soil types

    Soil typeAerial coverage (km2)The area in (%)
    Chromic vertisols and dystric nitosols157153.4
    Dystric fluvisols44515.1
    Eutric Fluvisols70023.8
    Eutric nitosols130.5
    Orthic arcisols2127.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Adjusted WTRBLN for the whole study area

    ParametersMonthsAnnual (mm/a)
    Peff - PET−60.0−54.7−16.364.2106.4158.9191.6183.193.91.1−46.6−59.9561.4
    $ \Delta $Sm−27.5−18.1−4.464.−40.8−38.60.0
    Notes: P = Mean monthly aerial depth of precipitation, DRO = Direct runoff, Peff = Effective rainfall, PET = Potential evapotranspiration, AccPWL = Accumulated potential water loss, Sm = Soil moisture, $ \Delta $Sm = change in soil moisture, AET = Actual evapotranspiration, SMD = Soil moisture deficit, S = Surplus, TARO = Total available water for runoff, RO = Runoff without direct runoff, DET = Detention, and ROTL = Runoff including direct runoff. All values are in mm.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  6.   Mean monthly discharge of Gilgel Gibe near Assendabo river

    DischargeRecording period (1990-2013)
    (×106 m3)24.5718.5619.3125.5854.96117.1223.7311.3267.2159.677.3839.121338.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  7.   Estimated water balance components of the study area

    ComponentsRecharge (m3/a)Specific yield (%)Exploitable groundwater reserve (m3/a)Safe yield (m3/a)Abstraction (m3/a)
    Estimated values875 829 8005.9520 557 000522 768 34910 154 684
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  8.   Summary of methods used and results obtained by different studies

    Study areaMethodResultsReference
    Omo GibeBaseflow separationBaseflow volume = 2 785 million m3WAPCOS, (Moges, 2012)
    Omo GibeSub-surface drainage approachAnnual groundwater recharge = 3 329 million m3WAPCOS
    Omo GibeRecharge area approachAnnual replenishable recharge = 4 208 million m3WAPCOS
    Omo Gibe3D steady-state Finite Element Method based groundwater modeling code (TAGSAC)The groundwater resource potential = 4.38 billion m3(Gedamu, 2015)
    Bulbul sub-basinWater balance methodThe groundwater recharge = 178 067 792 m3(Shimelis, Megerssa and Fantahun, 2014)
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-08
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-20
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-15