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Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria

Benadela Laouni Bekkoussa Belkacem Gaidi Laouni

Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003
Citation: Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003

Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria

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  • Figure  1.  Geological and piezometric map of the study area and groundwater samples location (Adapted from Sourisseau, 1972)

    Figure  2.  Lithologic correlation of borehole logs from the study area (Bekkoussa, 2009)

    Figure  3.  Piper diagram of water and chemical facies

    Figure  4.  Factor scores (33 samples) of F1 and F2

    Figure  5.  Distribution map of factor scores a) F1 and b) F2

    Figure  6.  Gibbs plots illustrating main mechanisms impacting groundwater composition in the superficial aquifer in Ghriss plain

    Figure  7.  Relationships between major ions

    Figure  8.  Bivariate plots of (a) (Ca2+ /Na2+) vs (Mg2+/Na2+) and (b) (Ca2+ /Na2+) vs (HCO3 /Na2+)

    Figure  9.  Plots of (a) Cl/Na+ versus NO3/Na+ and (b) NO3/Na+ versus SO42−/Na+

    Table  1.   Lithostratigraphic units in the study area

    Stratigraphic unitLithology (thickness)
    QuaternaryAlluvium (less than 100 m)
    PlioceneAstien sandstone and lacustrine limestones (40 m to 270 m). More clayed in upper part.
    MioceneGreen marl (up to 400 m)
    OligoceneClay-marly formations with sandstone passages (less than 100 m)
    EoceneAlternation of sandstone and clay-marly layers (less than 50 m)
    Lower CretaceousSandstone, limestones, and fine clayey sandstone at depth (up to 100 m)
    Jurassic (Kimmeridgian and Purbeckian)Graylimestones and dolomitic limestones (more than 400 m)
    LusitanoSandstone and dolomitic benches (more than 150 m)
    Callovo- OxfordianClays and marls with alternating sandstone (more than 250 m)
    TriasDetritic formations and lagoon deposits rich in gypsum and halite
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Physicochemical parameters of groundwater samples

    P148120396263416446598.5126001 980
    P2871903224839235399187.7930902 700
    P4602223314819242399207.7531302 700
    P61082594232126134421367.4340403 680
    P7871852855845190293117.8828902 500
    P94072154427399253117.6713501 080
    P108758255432026635357.8814861 260
    P11100622308402121279608.0518001 500
    P1216493182960090213728.322201 700
    P1312047138429395319558.2214031 100
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Statistical summary of chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Units in mg/L, except EC (μs/cm))

    VariableWHO standardsAlgerian standardsValues in the aquifer of Ghriss basin
    MinMaxAverageSt. Dev.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Pearson correlation matrix of major physicochemical parameters in groundwater

    Variables Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ Cl SO42− HCO3 NO3 PH EC
    Ca2+ 1.00
    Mg2+ 0.05 1.00
    Na+ 0.26 0.77 1.00
    K+ 0.36 0.07 0,27 1.00
    Cl 0.42 0.86 0.92 0.26 1.00
    SO42− 0.08 0.73 0.74 0.05 0.69 1.00
    HCO3 −0.18 0.07 0.05 −0.10 −0.15 −0.01 1.00
    NO3 0.54 −0.10 0.10 0.70 0.17 −0.14 −0.34 1.00
    PH 0.18 −0.12 0.25 0.09 0.15 0.01 −0.29 0.38 1.00
    EC 0.41 0.86 0.94 0.28 0.99 0.71 −0.07 0.19 0.17 1.00
    NB: Values in bold correspond for coefficients greater than 0.5.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Principal component loadings and eigenvalues of the factor analysis

    F1 F2 F3
    Ca2+ 0.418 0.583 −0.192
    Mg2+ 0.843 −0.412 −0.052
    Na+ 0.940 −0.116 0.033
    K+ 0.346 0.627 −0.506
    Cl 0.979 −0.036 0.044
    SO42− 0.768 −0.365 0.100
    HCO3 −0.103 −0.485 −0.593
    NO3 0.239 0.886 −0.163
    PH 0.197 0.485 0.633
    EC 0.988 −0.045 0.001
    Eigenvalues 4.52 2.31 1.09
    Explained variance (%) 45.22 23.09 10.88
    Cumulative % of variance 45.22 68.31 79.19
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-06
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-23
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-15