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Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria

Benadela Laouni Bekkoussa Belkacem Gaidi Laouni

Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003
Citation: Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003

Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria

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  • Figure  1.  Geological and piezometric map of the study area and groundwater samples location (Adapted from Sourisseau, 1972)

    Figure  2.  Lithologic correlation of borehole logs from the study area (Bekkoussa, 2009)

    Figure  3.  Piper diagram of water and chemical facies

    Figure  4.  Factor scores (33 samples) of F1 and F2

    Figure  5.  Distribution map of factor scores a) F1 and b) F2

    Figure  6.  Gibbs plots illustrating main mechanisms impacting groundwater composition in the superficial aquifer in Ghriss plain

    Figure  7.  Relationships between major ions

    Figure  8.  Bivariate plots of (a) (Ca2+ /Na2+) vs (Mg2+/Na2+) and (b) (Ca2+ /Na2+) vs (HCO3 /Na2+)

    Figure  9.  Plots of (a) Cl/Na+ versus NO3/Na+ and (b) NO3/Na+ versus SO42−/Na+

    Table  1.   Lithostratigraphic units in the study area

    Stratigraphic unitLithology (thickness)
    QuaternaryAlluvium (less than 100 m)
    PlioceneAstien sandstone and lacustrine limestones (40 m to 270 m). More clayed in upper part.
    MioceneGreen marl (up to 400 m)
    OligoceneClay-marly formations with sandstone passages (less than 100 m)
    EoceneAlternation of sandstone and clay-marly layers (less than 50 m)
    Lower CretaceousSandstone, limestones, and fine clayey sandstone at depth (up to 100 m)
    Jurassic (Kimmeridgian and Purbeckian)Graylimestones and dolomitic limestones (more than 400 m)
    LusitanoSandstone and dolomitic benches (more than 150 m)
    Callovo- OxfordianClays and marls with alternating sandstone (more than 250 m)
    TriasDetritic formations and lagoon deposits rich in gypsum and halite
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Physicochemical parameters of groundwater samples

    WellCa2+
    (mg/L)
    Mg2+
    (mg/L)
    Na+
    (mg/L)
    K+
    (mg/L)
    Cl
    (mg/L)
    SO42−
    (mg/L)
    HCO3
    (mg/L)
    NO3
    (mg/L)
    pHEC(25°C)
    (μs/cm)
    TDS
    (mg/L)
    P148120396263416446598.5126001 980
    P2871903224839235399187.7930902 700
    P31105771212311037977.76960700
    P4602223314819242399207.7531302 700
    P5406239310261290177.8775620
    P61082594232126134421367.4340403 680
    P7871852855845190293117.8828902 500
    P8116572326711840397.55782700
    P94072154427399253117.6713501 080
    P108758255432026635357.8814861 260
    P11100622308402121279608.0518001 500
    P1216493182960090213728.322201 700
    P1312047138429395319558.2214031 100
    P141145828255109419177.91786580
    P1510826922191107253128.281090900
    P16132731457402140206102818101500
    P17120771504382132273447.9317801500
    P18112581365279138312558.1714171100
    P1927712734541097120293617.9536602900
    P208445922211124239138.111130800
    P21607451215018366188.04930720
    P226870503130104323177.6879767
    P2387751074328100245187.613551223
    P24927699328693289357.614081227
    P25516058215770268157.44821860
    P26447225210267342157.18838880
    P2760505531098033697.52860560
    P2814858815320140268167.2513701100
    P291201132887518119617217.122401660
    P3064914438913249787.16941860
    P318288916193131398457.312421030
    P321001081454464119242207.2517301300
    P3392646031368344397.3980900
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Statistical summary of chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Units in mg/L, except EC (μs/cm))

    VariableWHO standardsAlgerian standardsValues in the aquifer of Ghriss basin
    MinMaxAverageSt. Dev.
    Ca2+200200402779645
    Mg2+150150262598953
    Na+20020023423151116
    K+12202942
    Cl250500551261369306
    SO42−2504001834412964
    HCO3--20661733092
    NO3505051022623
    pH6.5-9.2<9.07.18.57.70.4
    EC1500280077540401630887
    TDS1000200056036801351761
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Pearson correlation matrix of major physicochemical parameters in groundwater

    Variables Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ Cl SO42− HCO3 NO3 PH EC
    Ca2+ 1.00
    Mg2+ 0.05 1.00
    Na+ 0.26 0.77 1.00
    K+ 0.36 0.07 0,27 1.00
    Cl 0.42 0.86 0.92 0.26 1.00
    SO42− 0.08 0.73 0.74 0.05 0.69 1.00
    HCO3 −0.18 0.07 0.05 −0.10 −0.15 −0.01 1.00
    NO3 0.54 −0.10 0.10 0.70 0.17 −0.14 −0.34 1.00
    PH 0.18 −0.12 0.25 0.09 0.15 0.01 −0.29 0.38 1.00
    EC 0.41 0.86 0.94 0.28 0.99 0.71 −0.07 0.19 0.17 1.00
    NB: Values in bold correspond for coefficients greater than 0.5.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Principal component loadings and eigenvalues of the factor analysis

    F1 F2 F3
    Ca2+ 0.418 0.583 −0.192
    Mg2+ 0.843 −0.412 −0.052
    Na+ 0.940 −0.116 0.033
    K+ 0.346 0.627 −0.506
    Cl 0.979 −0.036 0.044
    SO42− 0.768 −0.365 0.100
    HCO3 −0.103 −0.485 −0.593
    NO3 0.239 0.886 −0.163
    PH 0.197 0.485 0.633
    EC 0.988 −0.045 0.001
    Eigenvalues 4.52 2.31 1.09
    Explained variance (%) 45.22 23.09 10.88
    Cumulative % of variance 45.22 68.31 79.19
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-06
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-23
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-15

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