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Volume 5 Issue 2
May  2017
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LIU Yan-guang, LIU Bing, LU Chuan, et al. 2017: Reconstruction of deep fluid chemical constituents for estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature using chemical geothermometers. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5(2): 173-181.
Citation: LIU Yan-guang, LIU Bing, LU Chuan, et al. 2017: Reconstruction of deep fluid chemical constituents for estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature using chemical geothermometers. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5(2): 173-181.

Reconstruction of deep fluid chemical constituents for estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature using chemical geothermometers

  • This paper elaborates the chemical constituent change principles of deep geothermal fluid during the process of upward movement. It summarizes research methods of hydrochemistry, isotope and numerical modelling technique for the physiochemical processes such as decreasing temperature, shallow groundwater infusion, and degassing. The multi-component chemical geothermometry methods including gas geochemical method are discussed. High-temperature geothermal fields in China are mostly located in the southwest with frequent new tectonic movements, especially in Tibet high-temperature geothermal areas. Therefore the paper also focuses the status of high-temperature geothermal fluid research. At last, it’s pointed out in the paper that in the future we can start from typical high-temperature geothermal zones and geothermal fields to explore optimization of the multi-component geothermometry method and use it in the reconstruction and analogue of the formation mechanism and internal relevancy of regional geothermal systems.
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    Yokoyama T, Nakai S, 1999. Helium and carbon isotopic compositions of hot spring gases in the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 88(1): 99-107.
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    Palandri J L, Reed M H. 2001. Reconstruction of in situ composition of sedimentary formation waters. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 65(11): 1741-1767.
    ZHAO Ping, XIE E-jun, et al. 2002. Geochemical characteristics of geothermal gases and their geological implications in Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 18(4): 539-550.
    Verma S P, Pandarinath K, et al. 2008. SolGeo: A new computer program for solute geother-mometers and its application to Mexican geothermal fields. Geothermics, 37: 597-621.
    LV Yuan-yuan, ZHENG Mian-ping, et al. 2014. Geochemical processes and origin of boron isotopes in geothermal water in the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zones. Science China: Earth Sciences, 44(9): 1968-1979.
    ZHAO Ping, DUO Ji, et al. 1998b. Geochemical features of gases in Tibet Yambajan geothermal field. Chinese Science Bulletin, 43(07): 691-696.
    ZHENG Xi-lai, GUO Jian-qing. 1996. Studies of mixing and its application in geothermal systems. Journal of Xi’an College of Geology, 18(4): 53-57.
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    SHEN Li-cheng, WU Kun-yu, et al. 2011. Carbon dioxide degassing flux from two geothermal fields in Tibet, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56(26): 2198-2208.
    ZHENG Xi-lai, GUO Jian-qing. 1996. Studies of mixing and its application in geothermal systems. Journal of Xi’an College of Geology, 18(4): 53-57.
    ZHAO Ping, JIN Ji, et al. 1998a. Chemical composition of thermal water in the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet. Scientia Geologica Sinica, 33(1): 61-72.
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    Michard G, Fouillac C, et al. 1981. Une méthode globale d’estimation des températures des réservoirs alimentant les sources thermales. Exemple du Massif Central Francais. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 45(7): 1199-1207.
    ZHU Li-xin. 1989. Essential methods of geother-mal explorations-current research on micro-elements with geo-chemical techniques, techniques of geological exploration abroad. Foreign Geoexploration Technology, (1): 9-11.
    Wanner C, Peiffer L, et al. 2014. Reactive transport modeling of the Dixie Valley geothermal area: Insights on flow and geothermometry. Geothermics, 51:130-141.
    LIU Ying-chao, LIU Kai, et al. 2015. Hydrochemical characteristics and isotopic analysis of geothermal water in Liangxiang geothermal field. South-to-North Water Transfers and water Science & Technology, 13(5): 963-967.
    LIAO Zhi-jie. 1982. Setting of the geothermal activities of Xizang (Tibet) and a discussion of associated heat source problems. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, (2): 70-78.
    ZHANG Zhan-shi, SUN Zhan-xue, et al. 2004. Applications of fixed-AI modified log (Q/K) graph in hot spring system. Earth Science-Journal of China University of Geosciences, 29(3): 352-356.
    Spycher N, Peiffer L, et al. 2014. Integrated multi- component solute geothermometry. Geother?mics, 51(7):113-123.
    ZHAO Ping, XIE E-jun, et al. 2002. Geochemical characteristics of geothermal gases and their geological implications in Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 18(4): 539-550.
    XU Wan-cai. 1992. Application of the saturation index method to the study of geothermal geochemistry. Journal of Xi’an College of Geology, 14(3):66-70.
    ZHAO Ping, Mack Kennedy, et al. 2001, Noble gases constraints on the origin and evolution of geothermal fluids from the Yangbajain geothermal field, Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 17(3): 497-503.
    ZHANG Zhan-shi, SUN Zhan-xue, et al. 2004. Applications of fixed-AI modified log (Q/K) graph in hot spring system. Earth Science-Journal of China University of Geosciences, 29(3): 352-356.
    Sanliyuksel D, Baba A. 2011. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of a low- temperature geothermal source in northwest Turkey: Case study of Kirkgecit geothermal area. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(3): 529-540.
    ZHAO Ping, Mack Kennedy, et al. 2001, Noble gases constraints on the origin and evolution of geothermal fluids from the Yangbajain geothermal field, Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 17(3): 497-503.
    XU Tian-fu, Nicolas Spycher, et al. 2011. TOUGHREACT Version 2.0: A simulator for subsurface reactive transport under non- isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Computers & Geosciences, 37: 763-774.
    Wolery T J, Jove-Colon C F. 2004. Qualification of thermodynamic data for geochemical modeling of mineral-water interactions in dilute systems. Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports.
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    ZHAO Ping, XIE E-jun, et al. 2002. Geochemical characteristics of geothermal gases and their geological implications in Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 18(4): 539-550.
    Lloyd R R. 1968. Oxygen isotopic behavior in the sulfate-water system. Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(18): 6099-6110.
    ZHANG Meng, LIN Wen-jing, et al. 2014. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genetic model of Gulu high-temperature geothermal system in Tibet, China. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science & Technology Edition), 41(3): 382-392.
    SHEN Li-cheng. 2007. Deep-seated geological effect of degassing in Southwestern China and carbon circulation. Chongqing: Southwest University.
    Wanner C, Peiffer L, et al. 2014. Reactive transport modeling of the Dixie Valley geothermal area: Insights on flow and geothermometry. Geothermics, 51:130-141.
    WEI Ke-qin, LIN Rui-fen, et al. 1983. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopic composition and tritium content of waters from Yangbajain geothermal area, Xizang, China. Geochemica, (4): 338-346.
    HU Hong, ZHU Jia-ling, ZHAO Ji-chu. 2003. Na-K geothermometers study on springs in KUIRAU park, ROTORUA. Journal of Heilongjiang Institute of Science &Technology, 13(4): 45-49.
    Michard G, Roekens E. 1983. Modelling of the chemical composition of alkaline hot waters. Geothermics, 12(2-3): 161-169.
    Powell T, Cumming W. 2010. Spreadsheets for geothermal water and gas geochemistry. Stanford: Proceedings Thirty-Fifth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University.
    TONG Wei, ZHANG Zhi-fei, et al. 1978. Himalayan thermal zones. Journal of Peking University: Natural Sciences (1): 81-93, 162.
    Reed M H. 1982. Calculation of multicomponent chemical equilibria and reaction processes in systems involving minerals, gases and an aqueous phase. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 46(4): 513-528.
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    [11] GAN Hao-nan, LIN Wen-jing, YUE Gao-fan, WANG Xiao, MA Feng, WANG Gui-ling, 2017: Research on the fault controlling mechanism of geothermal water in Zhangzhou Basin, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 326-335.
    [12] ZHU Wei, TANG Wen, LIU Qiang, ZHANG Mei-gui, 2017: Analysis on variation characteristics of geothermal response in Liaoning Province, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 336-342.
    [13] ZHANG Pei-feng, 2016: Thermal stresses analysis of casing string used in enhanced geothermal systems wells, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 293-300.
    [14] FENG Guan-hong, XU Tian-fu, ZHU Hui-xing, 2016: Dynamics of fluid and heat flow in a CO2-based injection-production geothermal system, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 377-388.
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    [16] YUE Gao-fan, LV Wen-bin, ZHANG Wei, SU Ran, LIN Wen-jing, 2016: Optimization of geothermal water exploitation in Xinji, Hebei Province, P. R. China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 197-203.
    [17] SHANG Xiao-gang, YU Xiang-hui, LI Cheng-ying, CHAI Hui-peng, JIANG Nan-jie, 2015: Geochemical characteristics of geothermal water in Weiyuan geothermal field, Huzhu County, Qinghai Province, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 59-69.
    [18] LIU Zhi-ming, LIN Wen-jing, LIU Qin-xuan, ZHANG Wei, LIU Chun-lei, MA Feng, WANG Gui-ling, 2014: Evaluation and reasonable utilization of geothermal resources of Shenze County, Hebei Province, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 17-27.
    [19] LIU Kai, SUN Ying,  LI Yu, LIU Jiu-rong, LIU Ying-chao, 2014: Zonation for exploitation and utilization of geothermal water in Beijing, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 94-104.
    [20] Le SONG, Yan-pei CHENG, 2014: Optimization Research of Water-Soil Resources in Huanghua, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 86-94.
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