Abstract: This paper reviewed the main achievements of hydrogeological survey in China, summarized the significant progress of hydrogeological survey over the past decade, and forecasted the key responsibilities for hydrogeological survey in the p14th Five-year Planq. The significant progress includes: China established the 1: 50 000 standard hydrogeological survey system with Chinese characteristics and produced the new generation of high-quality hydrogeological maps; the national groundwater monitoring project was completed and accepted, which marks China taking the leading position in groundwater monitoring internationally; fruitful results were achieved in the national groundwater quality survey, and groundwater quality background values were basically identified and checked; hydrogeological and environmental geological survey was continuously promoted in karst areas and the ecological restoration of rocky desertification achieved remarkable results; China strengthened layer exploration techniques for groundwater, integrating the key and practical techniques of layer exploration and monitoring; the exploration of groundwater in the poverty-stricken regions and old revolutionary base areas were effectively promoted to strongly guarantee the poverty alleviation and drinking water safety; the mystery of desert groundwater was uncovered, making up for the shortage of 1: 250 000 hydrogeological survey in the Badain Jaran Desert; and more efforts were made to conduct survey on the water resources in the basin, and to finish the unified measurement of national-scale groundwater level.
Abstract: The changes of development and utilization of karst groundwater in Sangu Spring Basin have made the original groundwater resource evaluation unable to meet the needs of future economic development. Based on analysis of existing data, combined with the characteristics of supplement, runoff and draining of regional karst groundwater, the Visual Modelflow software was used to build a numerical simulation model of Sangu spring Basin. The amount of karst groundwater resource and groundwater environment of the Basin were evaluated under different exploitation schemes, and the changes of karst groundwater environment in the future ten years were also predicted. The fitting error which is less than 0.5 m between the calculated value and measured value of the water level in the fitted borehole accounts for 93%. For the lithologically and structurally complex Sangu Spring Basin, the fitting effect of numerical simulation model was ideal. On the basis of the current mining amount of 111.80 million m3/a, the total redistributed exploited amount in the spring region was 61.79 million m3/a. Under the condition that the quantity of recoverable resources reached 173.59 million m3/a and under different precipitation schemes, all constraint conditions were satisfied, such as regional water level drawdown, maximum allowable water level drawdown in every simulated water source area and the flow rate of Guobi Spring. The results will provide a scientific basis for the rational development and utilization of karst groundwater in Sangu Spring Basin.
Abstract: The Rocha River is a receptor to receive wastewater from household, hospital and industry, from where contaminants are transported in the river, affecting biodiversity and the ecosystem of the area. In this paper we estimated the maximum transport of total chromium and chloride anion by applying the analytical model of Ogata & Banks (1961), and the results obtained are grouped into three zones: Contaminated, transition, and uncontaminated. The analytical model was applied with 13 samples collected from the river piezometers installed near Rocha, where they are arranged in two lines, i.e. RH-1 to RH-6 as the first line and RH-9 to RH-12 as the second line. The total chromium concentrations range from 0.16 mg/L (RH-1) and 0.11 mg/L (RH-9) at the closest points to Rocha River, to 0.13 mg/L (RH-7) and 0.03 mg/L (RH-12) at the most remote points to the river. The advance of the pollutants does not exceed 50 meters with respect to the axis of the Rocha River.
Abstract: Groundwater is considered as one of the most important sources for water supply in Iran. The Fasa Plain in Fars Province, Southern Iran is one of the major areas of wheat production using groundwater for irrigation. A large population also uses local groundwater for drinking purposes. Therefore, in this study, this plain was selected to assess the spatial variability of groundwater quality and also to identify main parameters affecting the water quality using multivariate statistical techniques such as Cluster Analysis (CA), Discriminant Analysis (DA), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Water quality data was monitored at 22 different wells, for five years (2009-2014) with 10 water quality parameters. By using cluster analysis, the sampling wells were grouped into two clusters with distinct water qualities at different locations. The Lasso Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique was used to assess the spatial variability of water quality. Based on the results, all of the variables except sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are effective in the LDA model with all variables affording 92.80% correct assignation to discriminate between the clusters from the primary 10 variables. Principal component (PC) analysis and factor analysis reduced the complex data matrix into two main components, accounting for more than 95.93% of the total variance. The first PC contained the parameters of TH, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Therefore, the first dominant factor was hardness. In the second PC, Cl-, SAR, and Na+ were the dominant parameters, which may indicate salinity. The originally acquired factors illustrate natural (existence of geological formations) and anthropogenic (improper disposal of domestic and agricultural wastes) factors which affect the groundwater quality.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of element correlation, the Gibbs diagram, hydro-geochemical ion ratios, isoline maps of groundwater and soil, and change patterns of strontium content after normalization, the study examines water-rock interaction of shallow groundwater in Dingtao area. The results suggest that strontium in the study area mainly comes from water-rock interactions, and the strata interacting with groundwater are the top of Quaternary and Neogene. The element correlation analysis shows that the formation of strontium-rich groundwater is sufficiently affected by sulfate and carbonate. The Gibbs diagram suggests that the chemical composition of groundwater is mainly influenced by water-rock interactions, accompanied by evaporation crystallization. c(Ca2++Mg2+)/c(HCO3-+SO42-) reflects that the main reactions in the groundwater system is weathering dissolution of carbonate and sulfate, and ion exchange takes place. c(Na+)/c(Cl-) indicates that Na+ in groundwater may have water-rock interactions with rocks it flows through. c(Cl-)/c(Ca2+) indicates that the hydrodynamic condition in the pumping well is poor and the water circulation is slow. The study examines the macro isoline map change patterns, correlation curves of change of strontium content in groundwater and shallow soil, and correlation curves of change of strontium content in groundwater, shallow soil, and deep soil. The results suggest that the strontium content in the study area has the same change pattern in groundwater and in soil, which further indicates that strontium in the study area comes from water-rock interactions.
Abstract: Sagardari union is facing groundwater crisis because of contaminations from agriculture and urban sewage, which bring a considerable change in water quality. In view of this, hydro-chemical analyses were undertaken on 35 groundwater samples and the following hydro-geochemical parameters, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), electrical conductivity (EC), cations and anions, were analyzed. From the analytical results, it is found that pH value was lower than WHO drinking water standard and the middle-downstream portions of the investigation region show higher EC. The piper plot indicates that the groundwater in Sagardari falls in the categories of NaClHCO3 hydro-chemical facies. Higher TH in groundwater was detected, but still in an acceptable range. In addition, salinity and arsenic ratio are higher and moderately higher, respectively. The spatial distribution of Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) was determined by geo-statistical modelling of Sagardari union. The study provides information and supports the administration which to make better groundwater utilization and quality control in the Sagardari union.
Abstract: The study examines a water exploration and poverty alleviation project in Guyuan county. The study analyzes correlations between aquifers and multiple induced polarization (IP) parameters, including resistivity, polarizability, deviation, half decay time, water-bearing factors, and Kc, a new parameter refined in this study. Based on the study, the well was placed accurately, and its maximum water inflow reached 30 m3/h. Kc value highlights the rate of change at early stages of IP secondary field. Kc value served as a quick indicator in this groundwater prospecting and is validated in practice. Progress has been made in finding new parameters in exploring water with IP method. Thanks to the project, local people have access to water and poverty alleviation has scored some achievements.
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore the spatial distribution and influence range of the mined-out area of a coal mine in Hebei Province, the advantages of ultra-high density resistivity method, such as large data volume, high efficiency and high precision, are brought into full play, the abnormal patterns of dislocation and partial drainage area of shallow continuous aquifer caused by subsidence zone are detected, and then the spatial distribution patterns of subsidence and fractures caused by deep mining subsidence zone are deduced, this method not only extends the exploration range of high-density resistivity method in mining subsidence disaster assessment, but also improves the accuracy of measurement, the distribution and influence range of mined-out area are revealed accurately, and good exploration results have been obtained in this project. How to select reasonable geophysical prospecting methods and give full play to the role of geophysical prospecting methods according to the geological characteristics of the study area, this exploration work is not only a good combination of geophysical prospecting methods and actual geological conditions, it also provides a valuable reference version for the exploration work under the same geological conditions.
Abstract: Taking 13 water-receiving areas on the East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (ERSNWDP) in Shandong Province as the study area, and comparing it with Jiangsu Province on the ERSNWDP and the Middle Route of the South-to-North (MRSNWDP), the current water-saving potential of the water-receiving areas within the municipalities of Shandong was analyzed. Different water-saving scenarios were constructed and analyzed with key water-saving indexes in various industries. These indexes include the effective utilization coefficient of farmland irrigation water, total water consumption of industrial sectors with an added value of over 10 000 RMB, average leakage rate of the urban public water supply pipe network and the penetration rate of water-saving appliances. Based on the scenarios, comprehensive water-saving potential of the 13 water-receiving area cities was calculated. The results show that the water-saving potential of the study area is at a relative high level. However, some cities still have a certain amount of water-saving potential for agriculture and industry to be elevated. Under the recommended water-saving scenario, the water-saving potential is 1.134 billion m3, accounting for 5.33% of the current total water consumption, of which 460 million m3 is in agriculture, 600 million m3 in industry, is and 74.20 million m3 in urban domestic sector. Comprehensive water-saving measures for the study area were proposed from the aspects of agricultural, industrial and domestic water uses. Agricultural and industrial water saving are more significant. The major cities for agricultural water saving include Jining City, Heze City, Weifang City and Jinan City; the focus cities of industrial water saving mainly include Weihai City, Jining City and Qingdao City and etc.; the key water-saving areas for urban use mainly include Zaozhuang City, Jining City and Heze City.
Abstract: The construction of emergency water sources is the material basis for ensuring urban water safety, and it is also an inherent requirement for maintaining social stability and development. The hydrogeological characteristics of groundwater in Luoyang City from the aspects of the division of groundwater aquifer groups, water yield property and groundwater dynamics were described in this paper. Two emergency water sources were selected on basis of comprehensively considering groundwater resources and ecological environmental effects, groundwater quality and exploitation technology, etc. Then it further analysed the aquifer types, water yield properties and groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions of the two emergency water sources, and evaluate the groundwater resources quantity of the water sources. The results are that the shallow underground aquifer in Luoyang City is thick, coarse, and stable in lithology and thickness. The two water sources enjoy good exploitation potential and can be used as backup water sources to supply water in the event of a water source crisis.