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Variation characteristics of CO2 in a newly-excavated soil profile, Chinese Loess Plateau: Excavation-induced ancient soil organic carbon decomposition

Song Chao Liu Man Dong Qiu-yao Zhang Lin Wang Pan Chen Hong-yun Ma Rong

Song C, Liu M, Dong QY, et al. 2022. Variation characteristics of CO2 in a newly-excavated soil profile, Chinese Loess Plateau: Excavation-induced ancient soil organic carbon decomposition. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(1): 19-32 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.003
Citation: Song C, Liu M, Dong QY, et al. 2022. Variation characteristics of CO2 in a newly-excavated soil profile, Chinese Loess Plateau: Excavation-induced ancient soil organic carbon decomposition. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(1): 19-32 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.003

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.01.003

Variation characteristics of CO2 in a newly-excavated soil profile, Chinese Loess Plateau: Excavation-induced ancient soil organic carbon decomposition

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  • Figure  1.  The location map of study area (a), the studied section (b) and the sketch map of the tube for gas monitoring and sampling (c)

    (a) Chinese Loess plateau: Red square- The location of the study area; (b) the loess section for gas monitoring: Small circle is the location of gas concentration monitoring and gas sampling inside soil; big circles are the locations for monitoring the lateral gases flux out of loess section; (c) the tubes for gas monitoring and sampling which were buried inside loess (see small circles in Fig.1b): Gas-storing tube: L=80 cm, Ø=45 mm; airway tube: L=80 cm, Ø=10 mm

    Figure  2.  Variation of soil CO2 concentration in different season

    Figure  3.  Concentration and δ13C of CO2 at LTC profile in February, 2017

    Figure  4.  Variation characteristics of total organic carbon (SOC), total inorganic carbon (SIC) and δ13CSOC with depth

    Figure  5.  Relationship between SOC (%) and δ13CSOC (‰) (P<0.05)

    Figure  6.  Relationship between SIC (%) and δ13CSOC (‰) (P <0.05)

    Figure  7.  Inverse of CO2 concentration against isotope signature (Keeling plot)

    1/[CO2]= the inverse CO2 concentration; Data of QS loess section are from (Song et al. 2017a); δ13Ccarb end member is the mean δ13C of soil carbonate in study area (approximately −8‰);δ13CSOC end member is roughly –22% (–23.1% for this profile and –21.4% for QS section)

    Table  1.   Concentration of CO2

    No.Depth/m2014Feb.2014Mar.2014Apr.2014 Jun.2015Feb.2015Oct.2016May2017Feb.2019Sept.2020June
    Temp. - 6℃ 14℃ 16℃ 26℃ 9℃ 20℃ 22℃ 5℃ 21℃ 25℃
    In air - 410 430 410 410 410 390 410 410 410 410
    LTC1 1.9 5 740 4 350 5 740 11 190 2 520 4 810 3 760 1 130 4 130 4 110
    LTC2 3.1 3 540 3 430 3 890 4 810 2 240 4 240 2 870 1 130 2 150 2 670
    LTC3 4.1 3 090 2 930 3 320 4 170 1 970 3 400 2 670 1 540 2 990 2 300
    LTC4 5.2 2 370 2 310 2 720 3 650 1 380 2 530 2 060 1 180 2 410 1 880
    LTC5 6.1 2 560 2 270 2 630 3 340 1 340 2 300 1 760 1 130 2 230 1 920
    LTC6 7.1 2 340 2 200 2 450 3 030 1190 1 930 1 780 830 2650 1 670
    LTC7 8.2 1 440 2 700 N.d. N.d. N.d. N.d. N.d. N.d. N.d. N.d.
    N.d.=no data. The monitoring tube of LTC7 was destroyed since April of 2014.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Results of the efflux of CO2 and water vapor

    Depth/mCO2 /g·m−2·d−1H2O /g·m−2·d−1
    D. T.   Oct.,
    2015
    May, 2016 Feb., 2017 Oct., 2015 May, 2016 Feb., 2017
    Temp.
    (Weather)
      20℃ (Cloudy) 22℃ (Sunny) 5℃
    (Sunny)
    20℃ (Cloudy) 22℃ (Sunny) 5℃
    (Sunny)
    Surface 0.0 11.53 16.02 3.48 112.14 155.88 182.16
    LTC1 1.9 0.47 18.83 2.91 15.36 56.74 4.85
    LTC2 3.0 1.42 2.30 0.14 3.83 64.89 62.17
    LTC3 4.1 1.31 1.20 0.47 41.38 216.90 8.12
    LTC4 5.1 0.32 2.96 0.07 83.05 172.76 5.08
    LTC5 6.1 2.99 2.72 0.54 21.17 361.26 76.07
    LTC6 7.1 0.84 5.02 0.37 18.63 390.06 87.23
    LTC7 8.2 3.86 2.75 0.32 264.60 386.46 229.32
    Mean - 1.60 5.11 0.69 64.00 235.58 67.55
    D. T.=determination time; All the observations were done at 10:00 a. m. of the set testing date. Mean=the average value of these 7 observed results in the LTC profile.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Results of SOC SIC and δ13C at the observed layers and related calculated values

    No.Depth (m)SOC (%)SIC (%)δ13CSOC (‰)δ13CCO2
    (‰)
    Δδ13C
    (‰)
    CO2-SOC
    %
    CO2-Carb
    %
    LTC1 1.9 0.083 1.911 –22.8 –20.45 2.35 82.48 17.52
    LTC2 3.0 0.057 1.745 –22.9 –20.87 2.03 85.21 14.79
    LTC3 4.1 0.077 1.842 –23.4 –21.27 2.13 87.85 12.15
    LTC4 5.1 0.060 1.086 –23.4 –19.57 3.83 76.62 23.38
    LTC5 6.1 0.035 2.361 –23.6 –19.31 4.29 74.89 25.11
    LTC6 7.1 0.077 1.129 –23.2 –19.22 3.98 74.28 25.72
    Mean 0.065 1.679 –23.2 –20.11 3.10 80.22 19.78
    Δδ13C=δ13CCO213CSOC; CO2-SOC: SOC-derived CO2; CO2-Carb: carbonate-derived CO2
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Characteristics of soil CO2 in different unsaturated zone in the world

    No.LocationThickness of unsaturated ZoneType of soilMaximum depth for observation (observation solution)Characteristics of soil CO2Variation of CO2 concentration with depthRef.
    1 The U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site 110 m Predominantly sand and gravel (unconsolidated debris flow, fluvial, and alluvial-fan deposits) 110 m; Maximum: 105 μL/L Increase (Thorstenson et al. 1998; Walvoord, et al. 2005)
    2 Dalmeny site: 30 km northern of Saskatoon, Canada 7.0 m Clay mainly 6.8 m (0.4, 0.9, 1.7, 3.0, 4.7, 6.8 m) 39 000 μL/L Increase (Keller and Bacon, 1998)
    3 Rifle site in western Colorado, USA (Experiment site of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 3.5 m Unconsolidated gravel and cobbles interspersed with fine grained silt and clay and locally organic-rich sediments 3.0 m The maximum is 60 000 μL/L at the depth of 3 m Increase (Arora et al. 2016)
    4 5 km SE of Delhi, Ontario (Big Creek Drainage Basin) 5.8 m Medium sand 5.8 m 40 000 μL/L Increase (Reardon et al. 1979)
    5 Southern Amazon basin: Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10°25' S; 58°46' W, 230-250 m asl) 8 m Mosaic of Oxisols and Ultisols (acid soil) 8 m (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 m) 9 000 μL/L Increase followed by decrease (Johnson et al. 2008)
    6 10 km south of Saskatoon, Canada 6 m Aeolian sand 6 m (0.30, 0.56, 1.06, 1.56, 2.08, 2.61, 3.13; 4.56; 5.12 m) 400-12 900 μL/L Decrease in summer; Increase in Winter (Hendry et al. 1999)
    7 Southeast Phoenix, AZ, in the southeastern region of the West Basin of the Salt River Valley 6-9 m Silty sands and moderately well graded gravels 6 m The maximum is 30 000 μL/L at the depth of 6 m Decrease followed by increase (Suchomel et al. 1990)
    8 Cape cod, Southeastern Massachusetts, USA 0.5-12 m Sands and gravels 3.5 m Maximum 50 000 μL/L Increase (Lee, 1997)
    9 Gigante Peninsula (9°06' N, 79°50' W) 2 m Clay 2 m (0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 0.75, 1.25 and 2 m) 40 000 μL/L Increase (Koehler et al. 2010)
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [8] LU Chuan, Brian McPherson, WANG Gui-ling2018:  Hysteresis effects in geological CO2 sequestration processes: A case study on Aneth demonstration site, Utah, USA, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 243-260. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.001
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-20
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-15

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