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Determination of groundwater potential distribution in Kulfo-Hare watershed through integration of GIS, remote sensing, and AHP in Southern Ethiopia

Edmealem Temesgen Demelash Wendmagegnehu Goshime Destaw Akili

Temesgen E, Goshime DW, Akili D. 2023. Determination of groundwater potential distribution in Kulfo-Hare watershed through integration of GIS, remote sensing, and AHP in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(3): 249-262 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280021
Citation: Temesgen E, Goshime DW, Akili D. 2023. Determination of groundwater potential distribution in Kulfo-Hare watershed through integration of GIS, remote sensing, and AHP in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(3): 249-262 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280021

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280021

Determination of groundwater potential distribution in Kulfo-Hare watershed through integration of GIS, remote sensing, and AHP in Southern Ethiopia

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  • Figure  1.  Location map of the study area

    Figure  2.  The rainfall and temperature pattern of the study area

    Figure  3.  Flowchart presenting methodology of the study

    Figure  4.  Lineament density suitability map

    Figure  5.  LULC suitability classification map

    Figure  6.  Study area Geological suitability map

    Figure  7.  Slope suitability classification map

    Figure  8.  Rainfall suitability classification map

    Figure  9.  Soil property suitability classification map

    Figure  10.  Drainage density suitability classification map

    Figure  11.  Groundwater potential distribution map

    Table  1.   Groundwater potential estimation factors and their sources

    Factors Data source Data details Source reference
    Slope ASTER GDEM Version 3, (30 × 30) m https://search.earthdata.nasa.gov
    Drainage density ASTER GDEM Version 3, (30 × 30) m https://search.earthdata.nasa.gov
    Geology Geological survey ASTER Data vector layer: 11 091 958 https://search.earthdata.nasa.gov
    Lineament density Geological survey ASTER Data vector layer: 11 091 958 https://search.earthdata.nasa.gov
    Land use/land cover USGS Landsat 8 (30 × 30) m https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov
    Soil FAO

    Digital soil map of the World http://www.fao.org
    Rainfall CRUTS v. 4.04 High-resolution gridded data, 0.5°×0.5° https://sites.uea.ac.uk/cru/da
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Importance scale (1-9) and random consistency index (RI) (Saaty, 1999)

    Intensity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    Definition Equal Weak Moderate Moderate plus Strong Strong plus Very strong Very very strong Extreme
    RI value 0 0 0.58 0.9 1.12 1.24 1.32 1.41 1.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Distribution of Lineament density suitability in the area and percent

    No. Area / km2 Area / km2 Suitability class
    1 55.10 8.85 Very low
    2 110.72 17.78 Low
    3 190.6 30.61 Moderate
    4 160.1 25.71 High
    5 106.17 17.05 Very high
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   Distribution of LULC suitability in area and percentage

    No. LULC class Suitability classification Area / km2 Area / %
    1 Agriculture cultivation land Very high 487.51 78.29
    2 Water bodies High 20.68 3.32
    3 Shrub land High 105.45 16.93
    4 Natural forest Moderate 16.86 2.71
    5 urban Very low 1.55 0.25
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   Slope suitability distribution in area and percentage

    No. Slope classification Slope classification Suitability class Area / km2 Area / %
    1 <7° Gentle slope Very high 151.11 24.4
    2 7–15° Moderate slope High 191.71 30.8
    3 15–24° Strong slope Moderate 140.45 23.2
    4 24–34° Steep slope Low 98.66 16.1
    5 > 34° Very steep slope Very Low 40.76 6.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  6.   Distribution of rainfall suitability in area and percentage

    No. Rainfall classification / mm Suitability class Area
    / km2
    Area
    / %
    1 114.60–118.88 Very Low 150.33 24.14
    2 118.88–123.10 Low 142.31 22.85
    3 123.10–127.31 Moderate 130.2 20.91
    4 127.31–131.53 High 116.35 18.69
    5 131.53–135.74 Very high 83.5 13.41
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  7.   Distribution of drainage density suitability in area and percent

    No. Area / km2 Area / % Suitability class
    1 127.87 20.54 Very Low
    2 120.41 19.34 Low
    3 156.38 25.11 Moderate
    4 144.95 23.28 High
    5 73.08 11.73 Very high
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  8.   Pairwise comparison matrix of 7 groundwater factors from the AHP model

    Factors LULC Soil Geology RF Drainage density Lineament density Slope
    LULC 1 1 3 3 9 9 9
    Soil 1 1 3 3 9 7 9
    Geology 1/3 1/3 1 1 1 3 3
    RF 1/3 1/3 1 1 3 3 3
    Drainage density 1/9 1/9 1 1/3 1 1 3
    lineament Density 1/9 1/7 1/3 1/3 1 1 3
    Slope 1/9 1/9 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  9.   Groundwater potential factors normalized weight using AHP and their sub-classes rank

    Factors Groundwater potential factors classes Groundwater potential factors suitability AHP normalized weights Influence
    / %
    The rank of sub-classes based on Saaty's scale
    Lineament density 0–0.2
    0.2–0.4
    0.4–0.6
    0.6–0.8
    0.8–1.08
    Very low
    Low
    Moderate
    High
    Very high
    0.03 3 1
    3
    5
    7
    9
    LULC Cultivation land
    Water bodies
    Shrub land
    Natural forest
    Urban
    Very high
    High
    High
    Moderate
    Very low
    0.05 5 9
    9
    8
    5
    1
    Geology formation Quaternary extrusive and intrusive rocks
    Tertiary extrusive and intrusive rock
    Very high
    Very high
    0.34 34 9
    9
    Slope <7° (Gentle)
    7–15° (Moderate)
    15–24° (Strong)
    24–34° (Steep)
    > 34° (Very steep)
    Very high
    High
    Moderate
    Low
    Very Low
    0.1 10 9
    7
    5
    3
    1
    Annual Rainfall (mm) 114.60–118.88
    118.88–123.10
    123.10–127.31
    127.31–131.53
    131.53–135.74
    Very Low
    Low
    Moderate
    High
    Very high
    0.32 32 2
    4
    6
    8
    9
    Soil property Loam
    Sandy loam
    High
    Very high
    0.11 11 9
    8
    Drainage Density <1.8
    1.8–2.6
    2.6–3.4
    3.4–4.2
    >4.2
    Very low
    Low
    Moderate
    High
    Very high
    0.05 5 9
    8
    6
    4
    2
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  10.   Distribution of groundwater potential area

    No. Suitability area coverage / km2 Suitability
    in / %
    Groundwater potential distribution class
    1 112.92 18.13 Very low
    2 112.51 18.07 Low
    3 152.45 24.48 Moderate
    4 184.12 29.56 High
    5 60.36 9.76 Very high
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-25
  • 录用日期:  2023-07-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-09-15
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-15

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