• ISSN 2305-7068
  • ESCI CABI CAS Scopus GeoRef AJ CNKI 维普收录


尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!


Groundwater vulnerability assessment using a GIS-based DRASTIC method in the Erbil Dumpsite area (Kani Qirzhala), Central Erbil Basin, North Iraq

Masoud H Hamed Rebwar N Dara Marios C Kirlas

Hamed Masoud H, Dara Rebwar N, Kirlas Marios C. 2024. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using a GIS-based DRASTIC method in the Erbil Dumpsite area (Kani Qirzhala), Central Erbil Basin, North Iraq. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 16-33 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280003
Citation: Hamed Masoud H, Dara Rebwar N, Kirlas Marios C. 2024. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using a GIS-based DRASTIC method in the Erbil Dumpsite area (Kani Qirzhala), Central Erbil Basin, North Iraq. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 16-33 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280003

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280003

Groundwater vulnerability assessment using a GIS-based DRASTIC method in the Erbil Dumpsite area (Kani Qirzhala), Central Erbil Basin, North Iraq

More Information
    • 关键词:
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
  • Figure  1.  Location and DEM map of the study area and the dumpsite

    Figure  2.  Depth to water map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  3.  Recharge map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  4.  Aquifer media map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  5.  Soil media map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  6.  Topography map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  7.  Impact of the vadose zone map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  8.  Hydraulic conductivity map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  9.  DRASTIC vulnerability map of Kani Qirzhala aquifer

    Figure  10.  Nitrate concentration distribution

    Figure  11.  Correlation of DRASTIC index with NO3 values

    Table  1.   Weight, ranges and ratings of DRASTIC parameters (Aller et al. 1987)

    DRASTIC parameterRange/typeRatingStandard weight
    D: Depth to water (m) 35–50 7 5
    50–60 6
    60–70 5
    70–80 4
    80–90 3
    90–100 2
    >100 1
    R: Net recharge (mm/a) 0–50 1 4
    50–100 3
    100–175 6
    175–246 8
    A: Aquifer media Clay 3 3
    Silty clay 4
    Silty sand 6
    Sand 7
    Sandy gravel 8
    S: Soil media Clay 2 2
    Clay loam 3
    Sandy loam 6
    Silty sand 7
    Fine sand 8
    T: Topography (%) 0–2 10 1
    2–6 9
    6–12 5
    12–18 3
    >18 1
    I: Impact of vadose zone Clay 2 5
    Silty clay 3
    Clay loam 4
    Silty sand 6
    Sand 7
    Sandy gravel 8
    C: Hydraulic conductivity (m/d) 0.04074–4.074 1 3
    4.074–12.222 2
    12.222–28.518 4
    28.518–40.74 6
    40.74–81.48 8
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Drastic index classes and spatial distribution

    DRASTIC IndexArea (km2)Area (%)
    Very low53–8317.1116.97
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Statistics of single-parameter sensitivity analysis for DRASTIC

    ParameterTheoretical weightTheoretical weight (%)Effective weight (%)
    下载: 导出CSV
  • Abera KA, Gebreyohannes T, Abrha B, et al. 2022. Vulnerability mapping of groundwater resources of mekelle city and surroundings, tigray region, Ethiopia. Water, 14(16): 2577. DOI: 10.3390/w14162577.
    Ahmed I, Nazzal Y, Zaidi FK, et al. 2015. Hydrogeological vulnerability and pollution risk mapping of the Saq and overlying aquifers using the DRASTIC model and GIS techniques, NW Saudi Arabia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(2): 1303−1318. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4120-5.
    Alamne SB, Assefa TT, Belay SA, et al. 2022. Mapping groundwater nitrate contaminant risk using the modified DRASTIC model: A case study in Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research, 11(1): 8. DOI: 10.1186/s40068-022-00253-9.
    Al-Ansari NA. 2013. Management of water resources in Iraq: Perspectives and prognoses. Engineering, 5(8): 667−684. DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.58080.
    Ali SS, Hamamin D. 2012. Groundwater vulnerability map of basara basin, sulaimani governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan region. Iraqi Journal of Science, 53(3): 579−594.
    Aller L, Bennett T, Lehr JH, et al. 1987. DRASTIC: A standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. US Environmental Protection Agency Report (EPA/600/2-87/035), Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory: 455.
    Allouche N, Maanan M, Gontara M, et al. 2017. A global risk approach to assessing groundwater vulnerability. Environmental Modelling & Software, 88: 168−182. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.11.023.
    Babiker IS, Mohamed MAA, Hiyama T, et al. 2005. A GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. Science of the Total Environment, 345(1−3): 127−140.
    Bernardo B, Candeias C, Rocha F. 2022. Integration of electrical resistivity and modified DRASTIC model to assess groundwater vulnerability in the surrounding area of hulene-B waste dump, Maputo, Mozambique. Water, 14(11): 1746. DOI: 10.3390/w14111746.
    Boufekane A, Yahiaoui S, Meddi H, et al. 2022. Modified DRASTIC index model for groundwater vulnerability mapping using geostatistic methods and GIS in the Mitidja Plain area (Algeria). Environmental Forensics, 23(5−6): 539−556.
    Brindha K, Elango L. 2015. Cross comparison of five popular groundwater pollution vulnerability index approaches. Journal of Hydrology, 524: 597−613. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.03.003.
    Canora F, Muzzillo R, Sdao F. 2022. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in the metaponto coastal plain (basilicata, Italy). Water, 14(12): 1851. DOI: 10.3390/w14121851.
    Civita M. 1994. Le carte della vulnerabilita degli acquiferi al linquinamiento: Teoria e pratica [Contamination Vulnerability Mapping of the Aquifer: Theory and Practice]. Quaderni di Tecniche di Protezione Ambientale, Pitagora.
    Djémin JÉ, Kouamé JK, Deh KS, et al. 2016. Contribution of the sensitivity analysis in groundwater vulnerability assessing using the DRASTIC method: Application to groundwater in dabou region (southern of Côte d'Ivoire). Journal of Environmental Protection, 7(1): 129−143. DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.71012.
    Ekanem AM, Ikpe EO, George NJ, et al. 2022. Integrating geoelectrical and geological techniques in GIS-based DRASTIC model of groundwater vulnerability potential in the raffia city of Ikot Ekpene and its environs, southern Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources.
    El Yousfi Y, Himi M, Aqnouy M, et al. 2023. Pollution vulnerability of the ghiss nekkor alluvial aquifer in Al-hoceima (morocco), using GIS-based DRASTIC model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(6): 4992. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20064992.
    Ersoy AF, Gültekin F. 2013. DRASTIC-based methodology for assessing groundwater vulnerability in the Gümüshaciköy and Merzifon basin (Amasya, Turkey). Earth Science Resource Journal, 17(1): 33−40.
    Etuk M, Viaroli S, Ogbonnaya I, et al. 2022. Vulnerability mapping as a tool to foster groundwater protection in areas subject to rapid population expansion: The case study of Abuja Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria). Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 42: 101158. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101158.
    Fannakh A, Farsang A. 2022. DRASTIC, GOD, and SI approaches for assessing groundwater vulnerability to pollution: A review. Environmental Sciences Europe, 34(1): 77. DOI: 10.1186/s12302-022-00646-8.
    Foster SSD. 1987. Fundamental concepts in aquifer vulnerability, pollution risk and protection strategy. Vulnerability of Soil and Groundwater to Pollutants. Hydrology Research Hague, Proceding and Information, 38: 69–86.
    Gardi SQS. 2017. Environmental impact assessment of Erbil Dumpsite area-west of Erbil City-Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Journal of Tethys, 5(3): 194−217.
    Garewal SK, Vasudeo AD, Landge VS, et al. 2017. A GIS-based Modified DRASTIC (ANP) method for assessment of groundwater vulnerability: A case study of Nagpur city, India. Water Quality Research Journal, 52(2): 121−135. DOI: 10.2166/wqrj.2017.046.
    Gogu RC, Dassargues A. 2000. Current trends and future challenges in groundwater vulnerability assessment using overlay and index methods. Environmental Geology, 39(6): 549−559. DOI: 10.1007/s002540050466.
    Gonçalves V, Albuquerque A, Carvalho P, et al. 2023. Groundwater vulnerability assessment to cemeteries pollution through GIS-based DRASTIC index. Water, 15(4): 812. DOI: 10.3390/w15040812.
    Goyal D, Haritash AK, Singh SK. 2021. A comprehensive review of groundwater vulnerability assessment using index-based, modelling, and coupling methods. Journal of Environmental Management, 296: 113161. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113161.
    Green TR, Taniguchi M, Kooi H, et al. 2011. Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater. Journal of Hydrology, 405(3−4): 532−560.
    Hamza SM, Ahsan A, Imteaz MA, et al. 2015. Accomplishment and subjectivity of GIS-based DRASTIC groundwater vulnerability assessment method: A review. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73(7): 3063−3076. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-014-3601-2.
    Hasan M, Islam MA, Aziz Hasan M, et al. 2019. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Savar upazila of Dhaka district, Bangladesh—a GIS-based DRASTIC modeling. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 9: 100220. DOI: 10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100220.
    Ifediegwu SI, Chibuike IE. 2021. GIS-based evaluation of shallow aquifer vulnerability to pollution using DRASTIC model: A case study on Abakaliki, southeastern, Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14(23): 2534. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-021-08811-8.
    Jain H. 2023. Groundwater vulnerability and risk mitigation: A comprehensive review of the techniques and applications. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 22: 100968. DOI: 10.1016/j.gsd.2023.100968.
    Jawad SB, Hussien KA. 1988. Groundwater monitoring network rationalization using statistical analyses of piezometric fluctuation. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 33(2): 181−191. DOI: 10.1080/02626668809491237.
    Jhariya DC, Kumar T, Pandey HK, et al. 2019. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution by modified DRASTIC model and analytic hierarchy process. Environmental Earth Sciences, 78(20): 610. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-019-8608-2.
    Jmal I, Ayed B, Bahloul M, et al. 2022. Contribution of GIS tools and statistical approaches to optimize the DRASTIC model for groundwater vulnerability assessment in arid and semi-arid regions: The case of Sidi Bouzid shallow aquifer. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15(10): 974. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-022-10149-8.
    Khosravi K, Sartaj M, Karimi M, et al. 2021. A GIS-based groundwater pollution potential using DRASTIC, modified DRASTIC, and bivariate statistical models. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(36): 50525−50541. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13706-y.
    Kirlas MC, Karpouzos DK, Georgiou PE, et al. 2023. A GIS-based comparative groundwater vulnerability assessment using modified-DRASTIC, modified-SINTACS and NV index in a porous aquifer, Greece. Environments, 10(6): 95. DOI: 10.3390/environments10060095.
    Kirlas MC. 2021. Assessment of porous aquifer hydrogeological parameters using automated groundwater level measurements in Greece. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 9(4): 269−278. DOI: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.04.001.
    Kirlas MC, Karpouzos DÎ, Georgiou PE, et al. 2022a. A comparative study of groundwater vulnerability methods in a porous aquifer in Greece. Applied Water Science, 12(6): 123. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-022-01651-1.
    Kirlas MC, Karpouzos DΚ, Georgiou PE, et al. 2022b. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Nea Moudania (Chalkidiki) aquifer, using the DRASTIC and AHP-DRASTIC methods. 15th Conference of the Hellenic Hydrotechnical Association (H. H. A.)
    Koon AB, Anornu GK, Dekongmen BW, et al. 2023. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability using GIS-based DRASTIC model in Greater Monrovia, Montserrado County, Liberia. Urban Climate, 48: 101427. DOI: 10.1016/j.uclim.2023.101427.
    Kumar P, Bansod BKS, Debnath SK, et al. 2015. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 51: 38−49. DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2015.02.001.
    Kumar P, Sharma R, Bhaumik S. 2022. MCDA techniques used in optimization of weights and ratings of DRASTIC model for groundwater vulnerability assessment. Data Science and Management, 5(1): 28−41. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsm.2022.03.004.
    Kumar P, Thakur PK, Bansod BKS, et al. 2018. Groundwater: A regional resource and a regional governance. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 20(3): 1133−1151.
    Li X, Ye S, Wang LH, et al. 2017. Tracing groundwater recharge sources beneath a reservoir on a mountain-front plain using hydrochemistry and stable isotopes. Water Supply, 17(5): 1447−1457. DOI: 10.2166/WS.2017.036.
    Machiwal D, Jha MK, Singh VP, et al. 2018. Assessment and mapping of groundwater vulnerability to pollution: Current status and challenges. Earth-Science Reviews, 185: 901−927. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.08.009.
    Mawlood DK. 2019. Sustainability of aquifer and ground water condition in Erbil Basin/Iraq. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(6).
    Mensah DO, Appiah-Adjei EK, Asante D. 2023. Groundwater pollution vulnerability assessment in the Assin municipalities of Ghana using GIS-based DRASTIC and SINTACS methods. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 9(2): 2955−2967. DOI: 10.1007/s40808-022-01680-4.
    Metwally MI, Armanuos AM, Zeidan BA. 2023. Comparative study for assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using DRASTIC methods applied to central Nile Delta, Egypt. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 7(2): 175−190. DOI: 10.1007/s42108-022-00198-w.
    Mkumbo NJ, Mussa KR, Mariki EE, et al. 2022. The use of the DRASTIC-LU/LC model for assessing groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Earth, 3(4): 1161−1184. DOI: 10.3390/earth3040067.
    Muhammad AM, Tang ZH, Dawood AS, et al. 2015. Evaluation of local groundwater vulnerability based on DRASTIC index method in Lahore, Pakistan. Geofísica Internacional, 54(1): 67−81. DOI: 10.1016/j.gi.2015.04.003.
    Napolitano P, Fabbri A. 1996. Single-parameter sensitivity analysis for aquifer vulnerability assessment using DRASTIC and SINTACS. Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management (Proceedings of the Vienna Conference, April 1996). IAHS Publication, 235: 559–566.
    Neshat A, Pradhan B. 2017. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using DRASTIC framework and GIS. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10(22): 501. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3292-6.
    Noori R, Ghahremanzadeh H, Kløve B, et al. 2019. Modified-DRASTIC, modified-SINTACS and SI methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment in the southern Tehran aquifer. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 54(1): 89−100.
    Oke SA. 2020. Regional aquifer vulnerability and pollution sensitivity analysis of drastic application to Dahomey Basin of Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7): E2609. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072609.
    Omeje ET, Obiora DN, Okeke FN, et al. 2023. Investigation of aquifer vulnerability and sensitivity analysis of modified drastic and sintacs models: A case study of Ovogovo Area, Eastern Nigeria. Acta Geophysica, 71(5): 2439−2464. DOI: 10.1007/s11600-022-00992-4.
    Ouedraogo I, Defourny P, Vanclooster M. 2016. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale. Science of the Total Environment, 544: 939−953. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.135.
    Patel P, Mehta D, Sharma N. 2022. A review on the application of the DRASTIC method in the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. Water Supply, 22(5): 5190−5205. DOI: 10.2166/ws.2022.126.
    Patle D, Nema S, Awasthi MK, et al. 2022. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using DRASTIC model in Niwari District of Bundelkhand Region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15(20): 1590. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-022-10870-4.
    Phok R, Kosgallana DWN, Sumana BW, et al. 2021. Using intrinsic vulnerability and anthropogenic impacts to evaluate and compare groundwater risk potential at northwestern and western coastal aquifers of Sri Lanka through coupling DRASTIC and GIS approach. Applied Water Science, 11(7): 117. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-021-01452-y.
    Pouye A, Faye SC, Di Ãdhiou M, et al. 2022. An evaluation of groundwater vulnerability assessment methods in a rapidly urbanizing city: Evidence from Dakar, Senegal. Environmental Earth Sciences, 81(16): 410. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-022-10531-5.
    Rauf LF, Ali SS, Al-Ansari N. 2022. Groundwater vulnerability of halabja-khurmal sub-basin using modified DRASTIC method. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 233(11): 440.
    Rezig A, Marinangeli L, Saggai S. 2022. Comparative study for assessing vulnerability to pollution in El Asnam plain, North of Algeria. Water Supply, 22(6): 5894−5914. DOI: 10.2166/ws.2022.216.
    Ribeiro L. 2000. SI: A new index of aquifer susceptibility to agricultural pollution. Internal report, ERSHA/CVRM, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal: 12.
    Saidi S, Bouri S, Ben Dhia H, et al. 2011. Assessment of groundwater risk using intrinsic vulnerability and hazard mapping: Application to Souassi aquifer, Tunisian Sahel. Agricultural Water Management, 98(10): 1671−1682. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2011.06.005.
    Salih AO, Ali Al-Manmi D. 2021. DRASTIC model adjusted with lineament density to map groundwater vulnerability: A case study in Rania Basin, Kurdistan, Iraq. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(42): 59731−59744. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14912-4.
    Sarkar M, Pal SC. 2021. Application of DRASTIC and modified DRASTIC models for modeling groundwater vulnerability of malda district in West Bengal. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 49(5): 1201−1219. DOI: 10.1007/s12524-020-01176-7.
    Sener EH, Davraz A. 2013. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability based on a modified DRASTIC model, GIS and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method: The case of Egirdir Lake Basin (Isparta, Turkey). Hydrogeology Journal, 21(3): 701−714. DOI: 10.1007/s10040-012-0947-y.
    Sener E, Sener Ş. 2015. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73(12): 8405−8424. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-014-4001-3.
    Shakeri R, Alijani F, Nassery HR. 2023. Comparison of the DRASTIC Land modified VABHAT models in vulnerability assessment of Karaj aquifer, central Iran, using MCDM, SWARA, and BWM methods. Environmental Earth Sciences, 82(4): 97. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-023-10773-x.
    Singha SS, Pasupuleti S, Singha S, et al. 2019. A GIS-based modified DRASTIC approach for geospatial modeling of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk mapping in Korba district, Central India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 78(21): 628. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-019-8640-2.
    Sissakian VK, Al-Ansari N, Adamo N, et al. 2022. Flood hazards in erbil City Kurdistan region Iraq, 2021: A case study. Engineering, 14(12): 591−601. DOI: 10.4236/eng.2022.1412044.
    Taghavi N, Niven RK, Kramer M, et al. 2023. Comparison of DRASTIC and DRASTICL groundwater vulnerability assessments of the Burdekin Basin, Queensland, Australia. Science of the Total Environment, 858: 159945. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159945.
    Taghavi N, Niven RK, Paull DJ, et al. 2022. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: A review including new statistical and hybrid methods. Science of the Total Environment, 822: 153486. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153486.
    Torkashvand M, Neshat A, Javadi S, et al. 2023. Groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination from fertilizers using modified DRASTIC frameworks. Water, 15(17): 3134. DOI: 10.3390/w15173134.
    United Nations. 2020. Climate change exacerbates existing conflict risks, likely to create new ones, Assistant Secretary-General Warns Security Council. https://www.un.org/press/en/2020/sc14260.doc.html
    Van Stempvoort D, Ewert L, Wassenaar L. 1993. Aquifer vulnerability index: A GIS - compatible method for groundwater vulnerability mapping. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 18(1): 25−37. DOI: 10.4296/cwrj1801025.
    Victorine Neh A, Ako Ako A, Richard Ayuk A, et al. 2015. DRASTIC-GIS model for assessing vulnerability to pollution of the phreatic aquiferous formations in Douala-Cameroon. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 102: 180−190. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.11.001.
    Wei A, Bi P, Guo J, et al. 2021. Modified DRASTIC model for groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination in the Dagujia river basin, China. Water Supply, 21(4): 1793−1805. DOI: 10.2166/ws.2021.018.
    Xiong HX, Wang YZ, Guo X, et al. 2022. Current status and future challenges of groundwater vulnerability assessment: A bibliometric analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 615: 128694. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128694.
  • [1] Fu-ning Lan, Yi Zhao, Jun Li, Xiu-qun Zhu2024:  Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a karst basin, SW China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12, 49-61. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280005
    [2] Allia Zineb, Lalaoui Meriem2024:  Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12, 78-91. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007
    [3] Peng-yu Shi, Jian-jun Liu, Yi-jie Zong, Kai-qing Teng, Yu-ming Huang, Liang Xiao2023:  Analytical solution for Non-Darcian effect on transient confined-unconfined flow in a confined aquifer, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 365-378. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280029
    [4] Xiu-bo Sun, Chang-lai Guo, Jing Zhang, Jia-quan Sun, Jian Cui, Mao-hua Liu2023:  Spatial-temporal difference between nitrate in groundwater and nitrogen in soil based on geostatistical analysis, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 37-46. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280004
    [5] Zheng Zhao-xian, Cui Xiao-shun, Zhu Pu-cheng, Guo Si-jia2021:  Sensitivity assessment of strontium isotope as indicator of polluted groundwater for hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids produced in the Dameigou Shale of Qaidam Basin, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 9, 93-101. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.001
    [6] Abdulrahman Th Mohammad, Qassem H Jalut, Nadia L Abbas2020:  Predicting groundwater level of wells in the Diyala River Basin in eastern Iraq using artificial neural network, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 87-96. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.01.009
    [7] Abdelhakim LAHJOUJ, Abdellah EL HMAIDI, Karima BOUHAFA2020:  Spatial and statistical assessment of nitrate contamination in groundwater: Case of Sais Basin, Morocco, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 143-157. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.02.006
    [8] Rabiranjan Prusty, Trinath Biswal2020:  Physico-chemical, bacteriological and health hazard effect analysis of the water in Taladanda Canal, Paradip area, Odisha, India, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 338-348. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.004
    [9] Bahrami Mehdi, Khaksar Elmira, Khaksar Elahe2020:  Spatial variation assessment of groundwater quality using multivariate statistical analysis(Case Study: Fasa Plain, Iran), Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 230-243. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.03.004
    [10] LI Yang, KANG Feng-Xin, ZOU An-de2019:  Isotope analysis of nitrate pollution sources in groundwater of Dong’e geohydrological unit, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7, 145-154. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2019.02.005
    [11] WU Ting-wen, WANG Li-huan, WANG Lin-shu, KONG Qing-xuan2018:  Evaluation of groundwater quality and pollution in Daqing Oilfield, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 40-48. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.005
    [12] Alhassan H Ismai, Muntasir A Shareef, Wesam Mahmood2018:  Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 306-322. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.006
    [13] ZHU Yu-chen, ZHANG Yi-long, HAO Qi-chen2017:  Assessment of shallow groundwater vulnerability in Dahei River Plain based on AHP and DRASTIC, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 5, 266-277.
    [14] LIU Min, NIE Zhen-long, WANG Jin-zhe, WANG Li-fang, TIAN Yan-liang2016:  An assessment of the carrying capacity of groundwater resources in North China Plain region–Analysis of potential for development, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 174-187.
    [15] LIU Shu-yuan, WANG Hong-qi2016:  Dynamic assessment of pollution risk of groundwater source area in Northern China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 333-343.
    [16] DAI Wen-Bin, ZHANG Wei-Jun, COWEN Taha2015:  An analysis of River Derwent pollution and its impacts, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 39-44.
    [17] YANG Yun, WU Jian-feng, LIU De-peng2015:  Numerical modeling of water yield of mine in Yangzhuang Iron Mine, Anhui Province of China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 352-362.
    [18] Kang-qin HAN, Ri-sheng DUAN, Liang-liang JIA, Yuan-yuan DUAN, Min-ying FENG2014:  Analysis on Present Status of Underground Water Pollution in Shijiazhuang and Its Prevention Measures, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 44-48.
    [19] Liang ZHU, Wei-dong KANG, Ji-chao SUN, Jing-tao LIU2014:  Quantitative Calculation of Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Based on Quantification Theory III, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 78-85.
    [20] Song Bo, Liu Changli, Zhang Yun, Hou Hongbing, Pei Lixin, Yang Liu2013:  Urban Waste Disposal and Its Impact on Groundwater Pollution in China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 1, 88-95.
  • 加载中
图(11) / 表ll (3)
  • 文章访问数:  864
  • HTML全文浏览量:  420
  • PDF下载量:  122
  • 被引次数: 0
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-09
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-15