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Volume 6 Issue 4
Dec.  2018
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Alhassan H Ismai, Muntasir A Shareef, Wesam Mahmood. 2018: Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6(4): 306-322. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.006
Citation: Alhassan H Ismai, Muntasir A Shareef, Wesam Mahmood. 2018: Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6(4): 306-322. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.006

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.006
  • Publish Date: 2018-12-28
  • The assessment of hydrochemical quality of groundwater is very important to explore its nature and usefulness. In this paper, groundwater quality evaluation is carried out in the Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq. A total of 28 groundwater samples are collected from shallow tube wells and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. Groundwater suitability for drinking is evaluated based on the World Health Organization (WHO) and Iraqi standards, and suitability of groundwater for irrigation is assessed based on various hydrochemical parameters. The results reveal that the dominant types of groundwater based on piper diagram are mixed CaMgCl and CaCl. Gibbs ratio indicates that the groundwater in the studied area is affected by the evaporation process. The cation-anion exchange reaction in the studied area demonstrates that 54% of the groundwater samples indicate a direct base (cation-anion) exchange reaction, while 46% of the groundwater samples indicating the chloro-alkaline disequilibrium. Furthermore, generally all of the groundwater samples are unsuitable for drinking and irrigation. Cluster analysis reveals two different groups of similarities between the groundwater samples, reflecting different pollution levels in the studied area.
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