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Volume 10 Issue 3
Sep.  2022
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Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003
Citation: Benadela L, Bekkoussa B, Gaidi L. 2022. Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10(3): 233-249 doi:  10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003

Multivariate analysis and geochemical investigations of groundwater in a semi-arid region, case of superficial aquifer in Ghriss Basin, Northwest Algeria

doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.03.003
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  • This study aims to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow aquifer in a semi-arid region situated in northwest Algeria, and to understand the major factors governing groundwater quality. The study area is suffering from recurring droughts, groundwater resource over-exploitation and groundwater quality degradation. The approach used is a combination of traditional hydrochemical analysis methods of multivariate statistical techniques, principal component analysis (PCA), and ratios of major ions, based on the data derived from 33 groundwater samples collected in February 2014. Results show that groundwater in the study area are highly mineralized and collectively has a high concentration of chloride (as Cl). The dominant water types are Na-Cl (27%), Mg-HCO3 (24%) and Mg-Cl (24%). According to the (PCA) approach, salinization is the main process that controls the hydrochemical variability. The PCA analysis reveal the impact of anthropogenic factor especially the agricultural activities on the groundwater quality. The PCA highlighted two types of recharge: Superficial recharge from effective rainfall and excess irrigation water distinguished by the presence of nitrate and lateral recharge or vertical leakage from carbonate formations marked by the omnipresence of HCO3. Additionally, three categories of samples were identified: (1) samples characterized by good water quality and receiving notable recharge from carbonate formations; (2) samples impacted by the natural salinization process; and (3) samples contaminated by anthropogenic activities. The major natural processes influencing water chemistry are the weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks, dissolution of evaporite as halite, evaporation and cation exchange. The study results can provide the basis for local decision makers to ensure the sustainable management of groundwater and the safety of drinking water.
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