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Volume 7 Issue 2
Jul.  2019
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Akoanung Ayaba ABENDONG, ENDENE Emmanuel, Enoh Jeanot FONGOH, et al. 2019: A trigger-tube tracer dilution technique for determining Darcy and apparent velocities of groundwater in dug wells: A case study on phreatic aquiferous formation in Bamenda -Cameroon. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7(2): 182-194.
Citation: Akoanung Ayaba ABENDONG, ENDENE Emmanuel, Enoh Jeanot FONGOH, et al. 2019: A trigger-tube tracer dilution technique for determining Darcy and apparent velocities of groundwater in dug wells: A case study on phreatic aquiferous formation in Bamenda -Cameroon. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7(2): 182-194.

A trigger-tube tracer dilution technique for determining Darcy and apparent velocities of groundwater in dug wells: A case study on phreatic aquiferous formation in Bamenda -Cameroon

  • The need to understand flow within aquiferous formations for a complete evaluation of groundwater resource and quality control prompts the determination of groundwater velocities through well dilution technique. Well dilution techniques utilize tracer solutions after establishing an initial homogenous condition to monitor the flow rate of ambient groundwater into the wells. Application of dilution techniques in wells makes it feasible to determine the velocities of groundwater in the aquiferous formation surrounding the well. In this study, a simple trigger-tube tracer dilution technique was employed to determine the Darcy and apparent velocities of groundwater in the phreatic aquiferous formation in Bamenda, Cameroon. Eighteen (18) hand dug-wells at different locations within Bamenda were sampled by utilizing sodium chloride (NaCl) as the conservative tracer. Field estimates of groundwater flow velocities in the phreatic aquiferous formation in Bamenda reveal Darcy’s groundwater velocity in the range of 0.39 m/d at Nacho to 130.64 m/d at Foncha Street and apparent velocity in the range of 0.78 m/d at Nacho to 277.86 m/d at Foncha Street. The immense variations in the velocities of groundwater indicate that the groundwater flows at different rates and directions within the aquiferous formation in Bamenda, possibly due to variations in their hydraulic conductivities. Moreover, the spatial variations in the formation types, facies changes, thickness, and layering of the aquiferous formation also contribute to the variation of velocities. Areas with low groundwater velocities are associated with a lower contaminant transport rate when compared to areas with high groundwater velocities. The findings of this study are important for assessing the rates of pollutant movement in the subsurface, as well as the effectiveness and efficacy of the trigger-tube technique in evaluating the hydraulic properties of aquiferous formations.
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