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Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria

Allia Zineb Lalaoui Meriem

Zineb A, Meriem L. 2024. Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 78-91 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007
Citation: Zineb A, Meriem L. 2024. Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 78-91 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007

Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria

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  • Figure  1.  A. Major geomorphologic units of North Algeria (Villa, 1980). B. Kebir Rhumel subbasins (ABH, 2014).

    Figure  2.  Geological map of the study area, redesigned from Setif geological map at 1/200,000 (Villa, 1977).

    Figure  3.  Sampling location and piezometric map - January 2020- of the shallow aquifer of the upstream Kebir sub-basin (present study).

    Figure  4.  Piper diagram classifying major hydrochemical facies.

    Figure  5.  Mechanisms governing groundwater chemistry in the study area (Gibbs, 1970).

    Figure  6.  Na+ - Cl and (Ca2+ + Mg2+) - (SO42− + HCO3 + CO32−) scatter diagrams for groundwater samples in the study area.

    Figure  7.  Mg2+ - Ca2+ and SO42− - Ca2+ scatter diagrams for groundwater in the study area.

    Figure  8.  Values and distribution map of the WQI of groundwater in the study area.

    Table  1.   Physicochemical groundwater quality constituents in the Upper Kebir sub-basin

    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Summary statistics of groundwater physicochemical parameters with WHO drinking water quality standards

    MinMaxMeanSDCV%WHO (2011)Number of samples below MPLNumber of samples exceeding MPL
    pH 6.7 7.85 7.15 0.27 3.80 6.5–8.5 9.2 24 0
    T (°C) 11.5 22.4 17.05 2.81 16.45 25 24 0
    EC (µs/cm) 630 5,830 2,549.96 1,565.41 61.39 900 1,400 3 21
    TDS (mg/L) 509 4,223 1,686.01 967.44 57.38 600 900 0 24
    TH as CaCO3 (mg/L) 114 958 440.08 177.04 40.23 100 500 0 24
    TA as CaCO3 (mg/L) 105 405 230.54 76.90 33.35 150 - 2 22
    Dissolved O2 (mg/L) 0.03 8.12 1.336 2.18 159.84 4–6 - 22 2
    Ca (mg/L) 84 257 141.08 40.30 28.56 75 200 23 1
    Mg (mg/L) 6 67 41.75 15.55 37.24 50 150 24 0
    Na (mg/L) 135 295 225.13 36.60 16.26 - 200 2 22
    Cl (mg/L) 312 450 375.92 34.23 9.10 250 600 24 0
    SO4 (mg/L) 76 486 183.58 106.23 57.87 200 500 24 0
    HCO3 (mg/L) 92 292 189.08 55.10 29.14 125 350 24 0
    NO3 (mg/L) 28 128 66.54 30.53 45.88 50 - 10 14
    Min: Minimum, Max: Maximum, SD: Standard deviation, CV%: Coefficients of variation (%), DL: Desirable limits, MPL: Maximum permissible limits. EC, TDS, TH and TA Values are at 25°C.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   WQI Computation of groundwater in the study area

    (Mean values)
    T (°C)2540.12917.0568.248.80
    EC (µs / cm)150030.0972,549.96170.0016.49
    Ca (mg/L)20020.065141.0870.544.59
    Mg (mg/L)15020.06541.7527.831.81
    Na (mg/L)20020.065225.13112.567.32
    Cl (mg/L)25040.128375.92126.0616.14
    SO4 (mg/L)25030.097183.5873.434.12
    HCO3 (mg/L)12530.097189.08150.3714.59
    NO3 (mg/L)5050.16066.54133.0821.29
    Σwi = 311
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Classification of water quality

    RankingWQI ValueExplanation
    < 50Excellent waterGood for human health
    50–100Good waterSuitable for human consumption
    100–200Poor waterWater in poor condition
    200–300Very poor waterNeeds special attention before use
    > 300Unsuitable for drinkingRequires too much attention
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-17
  • 录用日期:  2023-05-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-15