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Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria

Allia Zineb Lalaoui Meriem

Zineb A, Meriem L. 2024. Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 78-91 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007
Citation: Zineb A, Meriem L. 2024. Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12(1): 78-91 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280007

Formation mechanism of hydrochemical and quality evaluation of shallow groundwater in the Upper Kebir sub-basin, Northeast Algeria

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  • Figure  1.  A. Major geomorphologic units of North Algeria (Villa, 1980). B. Kebir Rhumel subbasins (ABH, 2014).

    Figure  2.  Geological map of the study area, redesigned from Setif geological map at 1/200,000 (Villa, 1977).

    Figure  3.  Sampling location and piezometric map - January 2020- of the shallow aquifer of the upstream Kebir sub-basin (present study).

    Figure  4.  Piper diagram classifying major hydrochemical facies.

    Figure  5.  Mechanisms governing groundwater chemistry in the study area (Gibbs, 1970).

    Figure  6.  Na+ - Cl and (Ca2+ + Mg2+) - (SO42− + HCO3 + CO32−) scatter diagrams for groundwater samples in the study area.

    Figure  7.  Mg2+ - Ca2+ and SO42− - Ca2+ scatter diagrams for groundwater in the study area.

    Figure  8.  Values and distribution map of the WQI of groundwater in the study area.

    Table  1.   Physicochemical groundwater quality constituents in the Upper Kebir sub-basin

    pHTCETDSTHTAO2 disCaMgNaClSO4HCO3NO3
    Unit°CμS/cmmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/L
    17.015.91,8651,2864942400.16115321823147615628
    27.414.31,2851,0742801050.2594411543127913035
    37.220.31,4201,2514771840.2414317208402869236
    47.022.42,8101,8574702201.88186632413578623937
    57.115.04,4602,5433202880.12126582573758721637
    67.020.39607494502100.17154622736512017637
    77.219.91,0757444493120.161274220737514022541
    87.116.51,6091,1634493420.061576713537914628441
    97.016.32,9001,8699583760.292576229543214829242
    107.113.01,2008573724050.11864820838515728548
    117.018.67025092681960.34952521334115712853
    127.813.96305792922020.03956521038415713554
    137.015.02,3801,3608521860.551054829145015812762
    147.016.68857042921260.161283420535716216368
    157.011.54,9183,0064912018.121144226540316318968
    167.116.52,6201,6103731863.5843524235616914582
    177.415.45,8304,2234122042.071363821436517813782
    187.717.73,5252,4343431906.041432823837518618592
    197.319.65,2823,2145382345.42035823942519820794
    207.217.34,2002,9404331580.71292925940521318295
    217.121.71,3751,2503652020.71613947228390241175108
    226.717.32,9001,7261141540.7413348224365385186114
    237.015.54,1962,3695703100.48118936229385428230115
    247.518.92,17211495003020.5081483323232519825437
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Summary statistics of groundwater physicochemical parameters with WHO drinking water quality standards

    MinMaxMeanSDCV%WHO (2011)Number of samples below MPLNumber of samples exceeding MPL
    DLMPL
    pH 6.7 7.85 7.15 0.27 3.80 6.5–8.5 9.2 24 0
    T (°C) 11.5 22.4 17.05 2.81 16.45 25 24 0
    EC (µs/cm) 630 5,830 2,549.96 1,565.41 61.39 900 1,400 3 21
    TDS (mg/L) 509 4,223 1,686.01 967.44 57.38 600 900 0 24
    TH as CaCO3 (mg/L) 114 958 440.08 177.04 40.23 100 500 0 24
    TA as CaCO3 (mg/L) 105 405 230.54 76.90 33.35 150 - 2 22
    Dissolved O2 (mg/L) 0.03 8.12 1.336 2.18 159.84 4–6 - 22 2
    Ca (mg/L) 84 257 141.08 40.30 28.56 75 200 23 1
    Mg (mg/L) 6 67 41.75 15.55 37.24 50 150 24 0
    Na (mg/L) 135 295 225.13 36.60 16.26 - 200 2 22
    Cl (mg/L) 312 450 375.92 34.23 9.10 250 600 24 0
    SO4 (mg/L) 76 486 183.58 106.23 57.87 200 500 24 0
    HCO3 (mg/L) 92 292 189.08 55.10 29.14 125 350 24 0
    NO3 (mg/L) 28 128 66.54 30.53 45.88 50 - 10 14
    Min: Minimum, Max: Maximum, SD: Standard deviation, CV%: Coefficients of variation (%), DL: Desirable limits, MPL: Maximum permissible limits. EC, TDS, TH and TA Values are at 25°C.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   WQI Computation of groundwater in the study area

    SiwiWiCi
    (Mean values)
    qiSI
    pH8.530.0977.1584.148.16
    T (°C)2540.12917.0568.248.80
    EC (µs / cm)150030.0972,549.96170.0016.49
    Ca (mg/L)20020.065141.0870.544.59
    Mg (mg/L)15020.06541.7527.831.81
    Na (mg/L)20020.065225.13112.567.32
    Cl (mg/L)25040.128375.92126.0616.14
    SO4 (mg/L)25030.097183.5873.434.12
    HCO3 (mg/L)12530.097189.08150.3714.59
    NO3 (mg/L)5050.16066.54133.0821.29
    Σwi = 311
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Classification of water quality

    RankingWQI ValueExplanation
    < 50Excellent waterGood for human health
    50–100Good waterSuitable for human consumption
    100–200Poor waterWater in poor condition
    200–300Very poor waterNeeds special attention before use
    > 300Unsuitable for drinkingRequires too much attention
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-17
  • 录用日期:  2023-05-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-15

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