• ISSN 2305-7068
  • Indexed by ESCI CABI CAS
  • DOAJ Scopus GeoRef AJ CNKI
Advanced Search
Volume 11 Issue 3
Sep.  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Liu F, Zhang W, Wang GL, et al. 2023. Geothermal anomalies in the Xianshuihe area: Implications for tunnel construction along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(3): 237-248 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280020
Citation: Liu F, Zhang W, Wang GL, et al. 2023. Geothermal anomalies in the Xianshuihe area: Implications for tunnel construction along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, China. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11(3): 237-248 doi:  10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280020

Geothermal anomalies in the Xianshuihe area: Implications for tunnel construction along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, China

doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280020
More Information
  • Corresponding author: 18879003@qq.com
  • Received Date: 2022-12-11
  • Accepted Date: 2023-06-12
  • Available Online: 2023-09-15
  • Publish Date: 2023-09-15
  • This study presents a comprehensively analysis of geothermal characteristics in the Xianshuihe geothermal area along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, using temperature logging, temperature monitoring and thermal conductivity measurement, and regional geothermal geological survey data. The research focuses on the geothermal background, geothermal field, and their potential impact on the surrounding tunnels. The investigation reveals that the average heat flow value in the study area is approximately 73.0 mW/m2, significantly higher than the average terrestrial heat flow in mainland China (​​62.5 mW/m2). This high terrestrial heat flow signifies a distinct thermal background in the area. In addition, geothermal anomalies in the area are found to be closely associated with the distribution of hot springs along NW faults, indicating a strong control by the Xianshuihe fault zone. The study concludes that the region's favorable conditions for geothermal resources are attributed to the combination of high terrestrial heatflow background and water-conducting faults. However, these conditions also pose a potential threat of heat damage to the tunnels along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. To evaluate the risk, the research takes into account the terrestrial heat flow, thermal conductivity of the tunnel surrounding rocks, characteristics of the regional constant temperature layer, as well as the distribution of hot springs and faults. The analysis specifically focuses on the thermal damage risk of Kangding 1# tunnel and 2# tunnel passing through the study area. Based on the findings, it is determined that Kangding 1# tunnel and 2# tunnel have relatively low risk of heat damage, as they have avoided most of the high temperature anomaly areas. However, several sections of the tunnels do traverse zones with low to medium temperatures, where surface rock temperatures can reach up to 45°C. Therefore, these regions should not be neglected during the construction and operation of the tunnel project, and mitigation measures may be necessary to address the potential heat-related challenges in the area.
  • 加载中
  • Bai MK, Chevalier ML, Pan JW, et al. 2018. Southeastward increase of the late Quaternary slip-rate of the Xianshuihe fault, eastern Tibet. Geodynamic and seismic hazard implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 485: 19−31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2017.12.045.
    Bai YJ, Ni HY, Ge H. 2019. Advances in research on the geohazard effect of active faults on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geomechanics, 25(6): 1116−1128. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.095.
    Bian YY, Zhao D. 2018. Genesis of geothermal waters in the Kangding geothermal field, Sichuan Province. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 39(4): 491−497. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3975/cagsb.2018.060401.
    Chen AH, Xu X, Luo XH, et al. 2017. Heat flow characteristics and controlling factors of the Baikang Basin in South China Sea. Acta Geologica Sinica, 91(8): 1720−1728. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0001-5717.2017.08.005.
    Chen YL, Zhang H, Wei YT, et al. 2014. Report of geothermal resources investigation, evaluation and regionalization in Sichuan Province. Sichuan Geological Survey Institute.
    Cui P, Su FH, Zou Q, et al. 2015. Risk assessment and disaster reduction strategies for mountainous and meteorological hazards in Tibetan Plateau. Chinese Science Bulletin, 60(32): 3067−3077. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.1360/N972015-00849.
    Fan L. 2019. Study on the key techniques for comprehensive control of heat harm of the deep-buried and super-long tunnel with high ground temperature. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 56(6): 1−10. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.13807/j.cnki.mtt.2019.06.001.
    Furlong KP, Chapman DS. 1987. Thermal state of the lithosphere. Reviews of Geophysics, 25(6): 1255. DOI: 10.1029/rg025i006p01255.
    Gong YL, Wang LS, Liu SW, 2011. Thermal structure and thermal evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China. Beijing: Atomic Energy Press. (in Chinese)
    Guo CB, Zhang YS, Jiang LW, et al. 2017. Discussion on the environmental and engineering geological problems along the Sichuan-Tibet railway and its adjacent area. Geoscience, 31(5): 877−889. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-8527.2017.05.001.
    He LJ, Hu SB, Huang SP, et al. 2008. Heat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(B2): B02404. DOI: 10.1029/2007jb004958.
    He P, Zhang GZ, Qiang XG. 2020. Cause analysis of geothermal water and geological route selection research on the Sangzhuling tunnel of Sichuan-Tibet railway. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 37(6): 10−13, 23. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2106.2020.06.003.
    Hu SB, Huang SP, 2015. Heat flow data in the continental area of China. Geothermic and its application. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
    Hu XC, Fan ZC, Xie EJ, et al. 2013. Report of geothermal resources investigation, evaluation and regionalization in Tibet Autonomous Region. Geothermal Geological Team of Tibet.
    Huang X, Li X, Yu ZY, et al. 2018. Thermal storage characteristics and temperature calculation in zhonggu area, Kangding. Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation, 29(4): 96−104. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-4362.2018.04.017.
    Li JC. 2011. Research on location of geothermic tunnel of Lhasa-Rikaze railway. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 28(4): 42−46. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2106.2011.04.009.
    Lin WJ, Wang GL, Shao JL, et al. 2021. Distribution and exploration of hot dry rock resources in China: Progress and inspiration. Acta Geologica Sinica, 95(5): 1366−1381. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.19762/j.cnki.dizhixuebao.2021213.
    Liu F, Lang XJ, Lu C, et al. 2017. Thermophysical parameters and lithospheric thermal structure in Guide Basin, Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(5): 199. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-017-6503-2.
    Liu YM. 2011. Genesis of the geothermal water in simaqiao—Xiaoreshui area of Kangding, Sichuan Province. Beijing: China University of Geosciences. (in Chinese)
    Lu D. 2012. Numerical simulation and classification on geothermal field of lasa-rikaze railway tunnels in yarlungzangbo canyon area. M. S. thesis. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University. (in Chinese)
    Luo L, Zhu X, He CY, et al. 2019. Study on the genesis of geothermal fluid in Xianyang geothermal field. Geological Review, 65(6): 1422−1430. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.16509/j.georeview.2019.06.009.
    Ma X, Fu L, Li TF, et al. 2021. Analysis of geothermal origin in eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Geoscience, 35(1): 209−219. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.19657/j.geoscience.1000-8527.2021.016.
    Ou XG, Jin ZM, Wang L, et al. 2004. The thermal conductivity and its anisotropy of the rock from 100-2 000 m in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling: Implications for the study of the thermal structure of subduction zones. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 1: 109−118. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0569.2004.01.009.
    Peng JB, Cui P, Zhuang JQ. 2020. Challenges to engineering geology of Sichuan—Tibet railway. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 39(12): 2377−2389. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.13722/j.cnki.jrme.2020.0446.
    Pollack HN, Hurter SJ, Johnson JR. 1993. Heat flow from the Earth's interior: Analysis of the global data set. Reviews of Geophysics, 31(3): 267. DOI: 10.1029/93rg01249.
    Qin YL, Wu JL, Zhan HY, et al. 2021. Discussion on the correlation between active fault and geological disaster distribution in the Ganzi area, western Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Geomechanics, 27(3): 463−474. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.03.042.
    Qiu NS, Hu SB, He LJ, et al. 2004. Theory and Application of Research on Thermal Regime in Sedimentary Basin. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press. (in Chinese)
    Rybach L, Wilhelm J, Gorhan H. 2003. Geothermal use of tunnel waters - a Swiss speciality. International Geothermal Conference: 17-23.
    Wang SR, Zhang XY, Du SH. 2021. Geothermal distribution characteristics and prediction of Layue tunnel of Sichuan-Tibet railway passing through east syntaxis. Tunnel Construction, 41(1): 100−107. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3973/j.issn.2096-4498.2021.01.011.
    Wang ZW, Xu ZX. 2021. Geological line selection of Xianshuihe structural zone of Sichuan-Tibet railway. Journal of Engineering Geology, 29(02): 466−477. (in Chinese)
    Xie JT, Yu YY. 2013. Grades for heat damage in high altitude tunnel engineering. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 30(12): 69−73. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2106.2013.12.015.
    Xiong TY, Yao X, Zhang YS. 2010. A review on study of activity of Xianshuihe fault zone since the Holocene. Journal of Geomechanics, 16(2): 176−188. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-6616.2010.02.007.
    Yin L, Li YX, Wang SG, et al. 2018. Prediction of rock temperature in Gaoligongshan tunnel on dali-ruili railway. Tunnel Construction, 38(10): 1637−1642. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.3973/j.issn.2096-4498.2018.10.006.
    Yin YP, Wang WP. 2020. A dynamic erosion plowing model of long Run-out landslides initialized at high locations. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 39(8): 1513−1521. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.13722/j.cnki.jrme.2020.0062.
    Zhang W, Wang GL, Zhao JY, et al. 2021. Geochemical characteristics of medium-high temperature geothermal fluids in west Sichuan and their geological implications. Geoscience, 35(1): 188−198. DOI: 10.19657/j.geoscience.1000-8527.2021.015.
    Zhang X. 2012. A study of the characteristics of hot springs of low to moderate temperature in Chengde district of northern Hebei. M. S. thesis. Beijing: China University of Geosciences. (in Chinese)
    Zhang ZG, Li J, Tian ZH. 2019. Investigation and evaluation of geothermal resources of shattered fractures zones in mountainous areas of Xiaoreshui, Kangding. Journal of Hebei University of Technology, 48(3): 91−96. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.14081/j.cnki.hgdxb.2019.03.015.
    Zhao ZH, Xu HR, Liu F, et al. 2021. Preliminary prediction of temperature field and thermal damage in Zheduoshan region along sichuan-tibet railway. Geoscience, 35(1): 180−187. (in Chinese) DOI: 10.19657/j.geoscience.1000-8527.2021.022.
  • 2305-7068/© Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering Editorial Office. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)

  • Relative Articles

    [1] Xin Wang, Guo-qiang Zhou, Yan-guang Liu, Ying-nan Zhang, Mei-hua Wei, Kai Bian, 2024: Research progress on temperature field evolution of hot reservoirs under low-temperature tailwater reinjection, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 12, 205-222.  doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2024.9280016
    [2] Qing-shan Li, Xiao-bing Kang, Mo Xu, Bang-yan Mao, 2023: Effects of coal mining and tunnel excavation on groundwater flow system in karst areas by modeling: A case study in Zhongliang Mountain, Chongqing, Southwest China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 11, 391-407.  doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280031
    [3] Shuai-chao Wei, Feng Liu, Wei Zhang, Gui-ling Wang, Ruo-xi Yuan, Yu-zhong Liao, Xiao-xue Yan, 2022: Research on the characteristics and influencing factors of terrestrial heat flow in Guizhou Province, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 10, 166-183.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2022.02.006
    [4] Wen-kai KANG, Feng LIU, Fei-fan YANG, Hua-jun WANG, 2020: Simulation of heat transfer performance using middle-deep coaxial borehole heat exchangers by FEFLOW, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 315-327.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.002
    [5] Yan WANG, Yan-guang LIU, Kai BIAN, Hong-liang ZHANG, Shen-jun QIN, Xiao-jun WANG, 2020: Seepage-heat transfer coupling process of low temperature return water injected into geothermal reservoir in carbonate rocks in Xian County, China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 8, 305-314.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2020.04.001
    [6] WANG Hua, MAO Xu-mei, WANG Tao, FENG Liang, LIANG Li-li, ZHU Dong-bo, YANG Kai-ming, 2019: Hydrogeochemical characteristics of hot springs exposed from fault zones in western Guangdong and their 14C age correction, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 7, 1-14.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2019.01.001
    [7] LI Bo, LI Xue-mei, 2018: Characteristics of karst groundwater system in the northern basin of Laiyuan Spring area, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 261-269.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.04.002
    [8] SONG Ang, LIANG Yue-ming, LI Qiang, 2018: Influence of precipitation on bacterial structure in a typical karst spring, SW China, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 193-204.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.03.005
    [9] ZHANG De-long, WENG Wei, ZHAO Chang-liang, XU Jun-jun, YANG Peng, HUANG Yu-wen, HU Zhen-zhong, 2018: Development and application of turbodrills in hot dry rock drilling, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 1-6.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.001
    [10] YU Yi-qiang, 2018: Study on ground source heat pump system zoning and methods in the Northwest of Shandong Province, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 171-177.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.03.002
    [11] ZHAO Fang-hua, 2018: Research on single hole heat transfer power of ground source heat pump system, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 6, 65-70.  doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.008
    [12] FENG Guan-hong, XU Tian-fu, ZHU Hui-xing, 2016: Dynamics of fluid and heat flow in a CO2-based injection-production geothermal system, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 377-388.
    [13] ZHOU Xun, WANG Xiao-cui, CAO Qin, LONG Mi, ZHENG Yu-hui, GUO Juan, SHEN Xiao-wei, ZHANG Yu-qi, TA Ming-ming, CUI Xiang-fei, 2016: A discussion of up-flow springs, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 279-283.
    [14] WEI Jia-hua, CHU Hai-bo, WANG Rong, JIANG Yuan, 2015: Numerical simulation of karst groundwater system for discharge prediction and protection design of spring in Fangshan District, Beijing, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 316-330.
    [15] SUN Dong-sheng, ZHAO Wei-hua, LI A-wei, ZHANG An-bin, 2015: Analysis on method for effective in-situ stress measurement in hot dry rock reservoir, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 9-15.
    [16] Wang Bin, LI Bai-xiang, LI Fu-cheng, 2015: Discussion on heat source mechanism and geothermal system of Qinghai Gonghe-Guide Basin, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 86-97.
    [17] LIU Yan-guang, ZHU Xi, YUE Gao-fan, LIN Wen-jing, HE Yu-jiang, WANG Gui-ling, 2015: A review of fluid flow and heat transfer in the CO2-EGS, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 3, 170-175.
    [18] BAI Xi-qing, LIU Yan, 2014: Feasibility Analysis on Resuming Flow of Large Karst Spring in Heilongdong, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 2, 80-87.
    [19] , 2013: The Study of Statistical Damage Constitutive Models of Rock and Its Parameters Based on Lade-Duncan Criterion, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 1, 74-79.
    [20] Zong-jun Gao, Yong-gui Liu, 2013: Groundwater Flow Driven by Heat, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 1, 22-27.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figures(4)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (267) PDF downloads(29) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    JGSE-ScholarOne Manuscript Launched on June 1, 2024.

    Online Submission

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return