Abstract: With the ever-accelerating economic and social growth in Asia, the sustainable development of environment, economy and society of Asia and beyond, is severely constrained by a series of grave issues, such as global climate change, population explosion, resource shortage, and rampant disasters. The need for study on groundwater resources and environment in Asia as part of the efforts to tackle global climate change looms even larger. In analyzing how global changes of modern times and human activities are related to primary geo-environment, the groundwater environment serial maps of Asia introduces a new concept for mapping geo-environment of Asia that connects the geological background to groundwater environment. The serial maps reveal the geographic environment that is closely related to groundwater, the special-temporal features of the geo-environment and how it is distributed. The study is vital not only to the harmonious development among environment, economy and society as well as ecological progress in Asia, but also to the strategic requirements posed by the “One Belt One Road”.
Abstract: Based on the mapping of groundwater resources and environmental geology in China and its surrounding regions, Groundwater Ecological Environment Map of Asia is drawn to broadly reflect the ecological situation of Asian groundwater, categorize its ecological environment into three basic types and elaborate the research categories. This paper analyzes and summarizes the major characteristics and distribution regularities of the groundwater ecological environment of Asia to reveal the key related problem so as to provide a necessary reference for the construction and planning of One Belt and One Road.
Abstract: Based on landform, climate, river system, geological structure and hydrogeological structure and from the perspective of systematology, the groundwater system of Asia can be divided into 36 secondary groundwater systems under 11 primary ones by the intercontinental scale. A scientific evaluation of groundwater resources in Asia can be secured using water balance method and runoff modulus method through water circulating analysis and feature study of groundwater system on the basis of groundwater system division of Asia. With natural recharge (runoff) modulus (104m3/km2?a), the total amount of water resources and those available for exploitation of primary groundwater system can be evaluated-continuous aquifers in plains and basins contain 242.465×109 m3/a of water, 169.725×109 m3/a of which is recoverable; discrete aquifers contain 186.695×109 m3/a, 130.686×109 m3/a of which is available for exploitation; other scattered aquifers contain 38.614×109 m3/a, 27.029×109 m3/a of which could be exploited. In total, there is 467.774×109 m3/a of groundwater with 327.440×109 m3/a recoverable. The groundwater map of Asia is compiled according to groundwater system division, evaluation of the total amount and aquifer types to reflect the macro features of groundwater resources in Asia, laying a scientific foundation for exploitation and management of water resources here and for avoiding disputes over groundwater resources and environment among Asian countries.
Abstract: This paper analyzed regional hydrogeochemical evolution characteristics of groundwater with respect to hydrogeological conditions in the Guanzhong Basin, China. Coefficient variation in the subregion between the Shichuan River and Luo River of the Guanzhong Basin is larger than other subregions, reflecting the more complicated hydrogeological conditions of this subregion. The hydrochemical components and hydrodynamic conditions of this area have distinct horizontal zoning characteristics, and hydrodynamic conditions play a controlling role in the groundwater’s hydrochemistry. The relationship between ions, and between ions and TDS (total dissolved solids) can give an indication of many charteristics of grounwater such as evaporation intensity, ion exchange, and the sources of chemical components. Results indicated that for the coefficient of variation (the coefficient of variation is a statistical measure of the distribution or dispersion of data around mean. This measure is used to analyze the difference of spread in the data relative to the mean value. Coefficient of variation is derived by dividing the standard deviation by the mean), the minimum value of pH parameters is 0.03-0.07, the minimum value of HCO3- parameters is 0.24, while the maximum is the SO42- coefficinet at 1.67. A PHREEQC simulation demonstrated that different simulation paths roughly have the same trend in dissolution and precipitation of minerals. Along the direction of groundwater flow, the predminant precipitation is of calcite and gypsum and the cation exchange of Na+ and Ca2+ in some paths. However, in other paths, the precipitation of calcite and dissolution of gypsum and dolomite are the main actions, as well as the exchange of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in addition to Na+ and Ca2+.
Abstract: This study explains various modes that can be applied for protected area. It analyses the requirements for good governance of protected area. A study area (Kara Kara National Park) is selected for identifying key challenges for implementing good governance of protected area. The challenges of good governance of protected area were investigated in this paper. The last part is based on the results from the third section and explores the strategies for addressing these challenges.
Abstract: Trichloropropane (TCP) is a chlorinated solvent which derives from chemical manufacturing as a precursor, and it is also an important constituent of solvent formulations in cleaning/degreasing operations. The control and remediation of TCP in polluted sites is a challenge for many conventional remediation techniques due to its refractory behaviour. This challenge in mind, some nano-materials and oxidants were tested to evaluate their effectiveness as in TCP degradation in a laboratory setting. Experimental results indicate that the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron prepared by green tea (GT) as a reductant has negligible degradation effect on TCP under normal temperature and pressure conditions. However, zinc powders of similar size but higher surface reactivity, demonstrated stronger dechlorination capacity in the breakdown of TCP, as almost all of TCP was degraded by carboxymethocel (CMC) stabilized nanoscale zinc within 24 h. Activated persulfate by citric acid (CA) and chelated Fe (Ⅱ) was also used for TCP treatment with a TCP removal efficiency rate of nearly 50% within a 24 h reaction period, and a molar ratio of S2O82-, Fe2+ and CA is 20:5:1. Both the reduction and oxidation reactions are in accordance with the pseudo-first order kinetic equation. These results are promising for future use of TCP for the remediation of polluted sites.
Abstract: Based on such principles as sustainable development and ecological cycle, this paper evaluates the water resources carrying capacity (WCC) of Changchun-Jilin region using a population-economy-water resources correlation evaluation model built on the basis of WCC evaluation method as elaborated in the methodology of Functional Zoning of Population Development. Results show that the annual WCC of Changchun-Jilin region is able to support the population there, as a basic balance is struck between population and water resources. The incorporation of WCC into overall urban planning is one of the building blocks for sustainable city development with an advisable size.
Abstract: The groundwater quality map is among a series of Asian groundwater environment maps, which has been compiled and is about to be published. The article introduces the central theme and main content of the map, evaluates the method applied for groundwater quality gradation, and discusses hydrogeochemical characteristics of Asian groundwater. The distribution of water quality is investigated through the data collection of selected elements; hydrogeochemical characteristics are demonstrated via the analysis of elements’ allocation in horizontal and vertical zones; whilst the groundwater quality is evaluated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).
Abstract: Based on the mapping program of the map series of karst geology in China and Southeast Asia, the paper summarizes the application of remote sensing technique and the process of acquiring information from remote sensing images. Generally, remote sensing technique serves as an effective method to recognize information about karst topography, rocky desertification and karst collapse. Interpretation of remote sensing images, in combination with field verification and cartographic generalization, provides basic data for updating the program database and compiling synthetic maps. In interpreting remote sensing images, automatic extraction can make it more efficient and visual interpretation can improve its accuracy.
Abstract: Regime of groundwater level is a comprehensive reflection of the hydrogeological environment from the perspective of groundwater. Based on the analysis of the water-level change of 65 groundwater monitoring points from 1987 to 1990, it is found that intermittent cones of depression came into being due to groundwater exploitation in Guilin during the observation period. The buried depth of groundwater in the drawdown cones, the annual variation of water level and specific yield have higher values. Improvement has been made to the formula of infiltration coefficient of precipitation. By using the precipitation response data recorded at every 15 minutes for water level of No. 9 borehole which is near Zengpiyan Cave, the specific yield of phreatic variation zone is indirectly calculated by using the modified formula. The results are range from 0.012 to 0.462 and the spatial distribution of specific yield is ascertained. These make up the deficiency that empirical values cannot be categorized based on the actual conditions. What’s more, the widely used Aviriyanover’s empirical formula is poorly applicable to karst area. This is due to its strict requirement for outside conditions, such as shallow buried depth, homogeneous aquifer medium and small hydraulic gradient.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the negative effects on geological environment caused by groundwater exploitation and its distribution. There are seven main types of the geological environment negative effects, which are generally as follows: (1) Constant decrease of groundwater level is mainly distributed in China (East Asia), India (South Asia), Tajikistan (Central Asia) and Saudi Arabia (West Asia); (2) land subsidence occurs mainly in eastern plains of East Asia and west Siberian Plain of North Asia; (3) seawater intrusion occurs mainly in China, Japan and South Korea in East Asia, Philippines and Indonesia in Southeast Asia, the Indian coastal areas in South Asia; (4) groundwater level decline caused by groundwater exploitation in oil fields; (5) mining collapse is mainly in 50° to 70° north latitude band; (6) the total area of karst collapse in China of East Asia is as much as 197.05 km2; and (7) ground fracture is mainly distributed in the North China Plain, Fenwei Plain and the Yangtze River Delta. Asia can be divided into 6 zones in terms of the geological environment negative effect caused by groundwater exploitation. According to analysis, with the increasing intensity of human activities, geological environment issues become more and more serious, therefore it is vital to control the human activities within the scope of 5×105 people/km2 to 9.9×105 people/km2 for the effective control of the size of the affected area by geological environment problems.