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2018 Vol. 6, No. 1

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Development and application of turbodrills in hot dry rock drilling
ZHANG De-long, WENG Wei, ZHAO Chang-liang, XU Jun-jun, YANG Peng, HUANG Yu-wen, HU Zhen-zhong
2018, 6(1): 1-6. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.001
Abstract(718) PDF(770)
The strata of hot dry rock (HDR) are usually igneous rocks with high temperature which are challenging for drilling activities. This paper deals with the key technology and research of turbodrills, introduced the application of turbodrills in HDR drilling at home and broad, and analyzed the field application cases. With the advancement such as low speed high torque turbodrill, reduction turbodrills, independent spindlesection and PDC bearings and so on, the application of turbodrills has widely expanded. The application of high-temperature turbodrills in Fenton Hill, HDR geothermal wells, high-temperature formation in Tahe oilfield all proved that turbodrills are the best downhole motors in deep high-temperature HDR drilling, thus they deserve further research and generalization.
Numerical simulation of response of groundwater flow system in inland basin to density changes
LI Lu-lu, SU Chen, HAO Qi-chen, SHAO Jing-li
2018, 6(1): 7-17. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.002
Abstract(493) PDF(300)
The developmental characteristics of groundwater flow system are not only controlled by formation lithology and groundwater recharge conditions, but also influenced by the physical properties of fluids. Numerical simulation is an effective way to study groundwater flow system. In this paper, the ideal model is generalized according to the fundamental characteristics of groundwater system in inland basins of Western China. The simulation method of variable density flow on the development of groundwater system in inland basins is established by using EOS9 module in TOUGHREACT numerical simulation software. In accordance with the groundwater streamline, the groundwater flow system is divided into three levels, which are regional groundwater flow system, intermediate groundwater flow system and local groundwater flow system. Based on the calculation of the renewal rate of groundwater, the analysis shows that the increase of fluid density in the central part of the basin will restrain the development of regional groundwater flow system, resulting in a decrease of the circulation rate from 32.28% to 17.62% and a certain enhancement to the local groundwater flow system, which increased from 37.29% to 51.94%.
The features of soil erosion and soil leakage in karst peak-cluster areas of Southwest China
LUO Wei-qun, JIANG Zhong-cheng, YANG Qi-yong, LI Yan-qing, LIANG Jian-hong
2018, 6(1): 18-30. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.003
Abstract(816) PDF(341)
Through utilizing water flow monitoring, rock scratching, soil wood piles and radionuclide 137Cs tracing in the Longhe karst ecological experimental site (hereinafter referred to“Longhe site”), Pingguo County, Guangxi Province, the features and values of soil erosion and soil leakage in different geomorphologic locations and land uses in the karst peak-cluster depressions are showed clearly. There are four kinds of geomorphologic locations in the karst peak-cluster depression, namely peaks, strip, slopes and depression. The soil leakage modulus in the peaks and strips respectively occupy 92.43% and 96.24% of the total mean soil erosion modulus at experimental sites. On the slope, soil leakage accounted for about 75%. At the bottom of depression, surface water was the main factor of soil erosion, and at last most soil leaked into underground rivers from sinkholes. The total soil erosion modulus and the contribution rates of relative surface soil erosion in regard of peaks, slopes and depressions gradually increased. There are also five major types of land use in the karst peak-cluster depressions, farmland, Kudingcha tea plantations, young Lignum Sappan fields, shrub-grassland and pastures. The soil erosion modulus of slope farmland has the highest value with an increasing trend year by year. But soil erosion modulus of other four land use types decreased by year, which shows the “grain for green” will result in better soil protection. By handling with rocky desertification and ecological rehabilitation in Longhe site, the mean soil erosion modulus of the karst peak-cluster depression has decreased about 80% from 2003 to 2015.
The analyses focusing on formation mechanism of Nanzhangzhuang ground fissure in Hengshui City, China
QI Jian-feng, HE Fang, WANG Cheng-zhen
2018, 6(1): 31-39. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.004
Abstract(439) PDF(586)
The paper focuses on the formation of Nanzhangzhuang ground fissure through emphatically analysing factors including the intersection fault dislocation, the deep ground-water over-exploitation together with the landform and lithology features. Features of the ground fissure are explained in detail after describing the geological setting in the study area. The paper also provides dynamic mode of the ground fissure formation via force analysis of the soil body unit at ground fissures. Conclusions can be drawn that the stress state of soil bodies changed with the activities of two intersection faults, namely Hengshui fault and Hubei fault. In addition, the stress fields control the development of ground fissure. The deep groundwater in Hengshui area dropped considerably in recent years, to be precise, the water elevation of deep groundwater dropped from -26 m to -94 m by 2010 at the centre of groundwater funnel. The over-exploitation of deep groundwater in Hengshui area enlarged the ground fissures. The data concerning shallow borehole show that the vertical lithology mainly consists of silt, silty clay and silty sandy soil, which all belong to the middle-compressed soil. The lateral extension of the soil bodies occur with pumping and tectonic creep, and the clay layers on both sides of the cracks can stay upright. Thus the ground fissure came visible.
Evaluation of groundwater quality and pollution in Daqing Oilfield
WU Ting-wen, WANG Li-huan, WANG Lin-shu, KONG Qing-xuan
2018, 6(1): 40-48. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.005
Abstract(567) PDF(1141)
Daqing Oilfield is located in the northeast of Songnen Plain in Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province, which is a petrochemical industry gathering place based on petroleum refining, chemical industry, chemical fiber and fertilizer. In recent years, the quantity demand of petroleum and petrochemical production for groundwater in Daqing Oilfield is growing, and it’s of great significance to analyze and study the quality and pollution degree of groundwater for groundwater exploitation, utilization and protection. In this paper, groundwater quality of Daqing Oilfield evaluated by Nemerow Index is poor, and most points are Class IV groundwater; When evaluating groundwater pollution by hierarchical ladder method, the results show that the severe and extremely severe pollution points account for 34.48% in shallow phreatic water and 20% in deep confined water, showing that shallow groundwater is more seriously polluted than the deep. The main components influencing the quality of groundwater in the study area are total hardness, total dissolved solids, Cl-, SO42- and so on, which are affected by both the native environment and human activities; The main pollution components in groundwater are nitrite and nitrate nitrogen which are affected by human activities. Daqing Oilfield groundwater pollution is characterized by inorganic pollution, while organic components related to human activities contribute less to the groundwater pollution currently.
Analysis on exploitation status, potential and strategy of groundwater resources in the five countries of Central Asia
LIU Yu, CHENG Yan-pei, GE Li-qiang
2018, 6(1): 49-57. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.006
Abstract(509) PDF(342)
As an important part of water resources of the five countries of Central Asia, groundwater resources give critical supports to the regional economic development. Accompanied by rapid economic development, the demand of groundwater is increasing. As a result, the governments are paying more attention to groundwater resource development and utilization. However, there are noticeable issues and contradictions in water resource exploration in these countries. To be more specific, these countries lack the studies in development potential and conception planning, thus influencing the sustainable groundwater development. This paper mainly discusses groundwater development problems in the five countries of Central Asia, and briefly introduces volumes and distribution of transboundary groundwater. In addition, it analyzes the current exploitation status of groundwater and studies the potential in utilizing the resource. Most importantly, it proposes creative ways to address groundwater development issues: To make best of the resource, international cooperation is required.
Application of CSAMT in hydrogeology exploration in Shandong Province–An example from geothermal exploration in Changdao County (south four islands)
CAO Yan-ling, CHENG Gang-jian, ZHAO Cheng-liang, WANG Tao, JIANG Hai-yang
2018, 6(1): 58-64. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.007
Abstract(1085) PDF(628)
The geophysical exploration in Changdao County is conducted using controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method. The inversion results reveal obvious evidences of one existed fault and five new blind faults, including their location, size, occurrence and development degree. Another two low resistance anomaly zones are delineated. According to the results, a geothermal well drilling test is applied in the middle of South Changshan Island, discovering a large flow of salt hotspring with bromine and strontium. The outlet temperature is 36 ℃ and the yield of a single well is 1 830 m3/d. This study on island hotspring exploration marks the first of its kind conducted in Shandong Province. It provides basic high-quality information for subsequent similar studies.
Research on single hole heat transfer power of ground source heat pump system
ZHAO Fang-hua
2018, 6(1): 65-70. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.01.008
Abstract(650) PDF(523)
In this paper, the single hole heat transfer power of the ground source heat pump system in Hengshui is compared with data gained from thermal response test. The results show that maximum monitoring data of heat transfer power per meter in summer is 97.1% of the test data, and the average value accounts for 81.8%. The per meter heat power data through on-site thermal response test can provide references for designing engineering project and optimizing ground source heat pump system as these data do not vary greatly from the actual monitoring data.

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