Abstract: High-salinity phreatic water refers to which with total dissolved solids (TDS)>30 g/L. Previous studies have shown that high salinity phreatic water evaporation is different at different depths. High salinity phreatic water evaporation under 0 m depth is the basis of the high salinity phreatic water evaporation studies. In this study, evaporation of high-salinity phreatic water at a burial depth of 0 m in arid area was investigated. New insights were gained on evaporation mechanisms via experiments conducted on high-salinity phreatic water with TDS of 100 g/L at 0 m at the study site at Changji Groundwater Balance Experiment Site, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China, where the lithology of the vadose (unsaturated zone) was silty clay. Comparison was made on the data of high-salinity phreatic water evaporation, water surface evaporation (EΦ20) and meteorological data obtained in two complete hydrological years from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014. The experiments demon?strated that when the lithology of the vadose zone is silty clay, the burial depth is 0 m and the TDS is 100 g/L, intra-annual variation of phreatic water evaporation is the opposite to the variation of atmospheric evaporation EΦ20 and air temperature. The salt crust formed by the evaporation of high-salinity phreatic water has a strong inhibitory effect on phreatic water evaporation. Large volumes of precipitation can reduce such an inhibitory effect. During freezing periods, surface snow cover can promote the evaporation of high-salinity phreatic water at 0 m; the thicker the snow cover, the more apparent this effect is.
Abstract: With the rapid increase of energy demand and the increasingly highlighted environmental problems, clean, safe and widely distributed geothermal resources have become a hot spot for renewable resources development. The state of in-situ stress is a major control parameter for multiple links including well location, fracture inspiration and reservoir assessment, so how to determine the accurate state of in-situ stress in the deep thermal reservoir becomes a core problem drawing widely attention and urgent to be solved. Based on features of hot dry rock reservoir in terms of temperature and pressure and the comparison analysis, this article proposes the method of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) as an effective method for determining the state of in-situ stress in the area with HDR resources distributed and explains the availability of ASR method by application examples.
Abstract: The Shihongtan uranium deposit in northwest China is a sandstone-type deposit suitable for alkaline in-situ leaching exploitation of uranium. Alkaline leaching tends to result in CaCO3 precipitation there by affecting the porosity of the ore-bearing aquifer. CaCO3 deposits can also block pumping and injection holes if the formulation parameters of the leaching solution are not well controlled. However, controlling these parameters to operate the in-situ leaching process is challenging. Our study demonstrates that the dissolved uranium concentration in the leaching solution increases as HCO3－ concentration increases. Therefore, the most suitable HCO3－ concentration to use as leaching solution is defined by the boundary value of the HCO3－ concentration that controls CaCO3 dissolution-precipitation. That is, the dissolution and precipitation of calcite is closely related to pH, Ca2+ and HCO3－ concentration. The pH and Ca2+ concentration are the main factors limiting HCO3－ concentration in the leaching solution. The higher the pH and Ca2+ concentration, the lower the boundary value of HCO3－ concentration, and therefore the more unfavorable to in-situ leaching of uranium.
Abstract: In order to study the distribution and evolution features of saline soil, the correlations between the groundwater depth, salinity and salinization of soil are examined through analyzing the hydrometeorological data and distribution maps of saline soil, groundwater depth and salinity in 1957 and 2005. The results show that the area of salinization has generally decreased. The area of salinization decreases with the increasing groundwater depth, and the dynamic evolution characteristics appeared between the groundwater depth and area of salinization. The area of heavy salinization is greatest when the groundwater salinity is > 5 g/L, the area of moderate salinization is greatest when the groundwater salinity is between 2-5 g/L, the area of light salinization is greatest when the groundwater salinity is 1-2 g/L and the area of non-salinization is greatest when the groundwater salinity is <1 g/L. The area of heavy salinization was characterized with groundwater depth <2.5 m and salinity >1.8 g/L. The area of non-salinization was characterized with groundwater depth >4.0 m and salinity 0.2-1.5 g/L.
Abstract: In recent years, the frequency of geological disasters gradually increases in the gully region of the Loess Plateaus centred with Yanhe River Basin. The research on the forming of the geological disasters in gully region and the disaster process will help us further understand the development of geological disasters and the disaster process. According to the detailed survey of geological disasters in Yan’an City, the river and gully erosion is the main natural predisposing factor that caused the geological disasters in the river gully region. In the forming of ditches and gullies, the surface water system changes the stress form of the original slope and reduces the strength combination of the slope in ways of water erosion and gravity erosion. Gully’s forming stage and stratigraphic contact form have some influence on the geological disasters and disaster process.
Abstract: As the major water catchment in Hobart city, the River Derwent provides water services to Hobart residents; however, water quality of the River Derwent is becoming unreliable. The aims of this paper are to identify the major water issues in the river and to reveal its impacts on Hobart residents and ecosystem. A methodology of secondary data analysis has been involved; which covers a wide range of existing dissertations. Through all the analysis of data, heavy metals, contaminated sediment and overload nitrogen can be regarded as three main causes of the water pollution. Moreover, the impacts of the water pollution are proved to be significant and perennial. On the basis of the analysis result, water pollution tends to be a tough issue that requires a great amount of time and efforts to deal with.
Abstract: Pisha sandstone is a soft rock found in the southern zone of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia. The presence of soft Pisha sandstone in the middle reaches of the Yellow River coincides with large areas of bedrock erosion in the river’s basin, with the average total erosion modulus as high as 44 570 t/(km2?a). Such high levels of erosion are one of the main sources of coarse mud and sands in the Yellow River. Erosion by gravitational forces such as snow glide and landslip are the main erosion types in Pisha sandstone region. The gravity erosion modulus can be as high as 25 615 t/(km2?a), accounting for 30.6% of the total average erosion. Our paper investigates the characteristics of Pisha sandstone in relation to the development of gravity erosion mechanisms. We conducted field investigations in Pisha sandstone region for original state rock sampling. Test results from analyses of the rock properties indicate that the mineral composition, structure and microstructure characteristics of Pisha sandstone determine its varying capacity to resist weathering. Degrees of weathering in slightly different lithological layers of Pisha sandstone lead to different erosion rates. In this way, erosion forces combined with the varying lithological strata in the rock aggravate gravitational erosion in Pisha sandstone.
Abstract: According to the chemical composition of thermal water from Geothermal Well DR2010 located in the Weiyuan Geothermal Field of Huzhu County in Qinghai Province, the groundwater recharge, age and geothermal resource potential of the thermal water are discussed by using the methods of Langelier-Ludwig Diagram, isotopic hydrology and geochemical thermometric scale. The analysis results indicate that the Weiyuan Geothermal Field is located in the northern fringe of Xining Basin, where the geothermal water, compared with that located in the central area of Xining Basin, is characterized by greater water yield, shallower buried depth of thermal reservoir and easier exploitation. Due to its active exchange with the modern cold water, the thermal water here shows relatively younger age. These findings provide a hydro-geochemical evidence for the exploitation of Weiyuan Geothermal Field.
Abstract: By analysing the hydrogeological conditions of this region and the coal mines hereof, together with the water hazards troubled Shennan mine area in recent years, this paper summarized six types of mine water hazards. As per the basic characteristics, geological distribution, threat degree and difficulty of prevention of various water hazards, along with the practice of water prevention in the mining area, this article proposed effective technical measures for the prevention and control of different water hazards and laid a solid foundation for the safe production in the mining area.
Abstract: The current researches on risk assessment of geological disasters mainly focus on unexpected disasters such as collapses, landslides and mud-rock flows etc. As the convergence zone of land and sea, coastal zone is the most active and complex area of interactions of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and anthroposphere. The ecological environment of coastal zone is very fragile, so further systematical research on coastal geological hazard assessment and prevention is in urgent need. The author begins with the definition and research contents and selects three typical coastal geological disasters, namely, the seawater intrusion, coastline change and sea-level rise as the objects of study. The systematic analysis and study on assessment system and methods are conducted, hazard assessment factors are selected, and a completely set of coastal disaster assessment system is established based on the technique of GIS. We took Bao’an District of Shenzhen City as an example and carried out a case study.
Abstract: The Qinghai Gonghe-Guide Basin together with the alternatively distributed mountainous region shows characteristics that the conductive geothermal resource of the basin has high geothermal gradient, the granite occurs in the bottom of borehole for geothermal exploration, and the convective hot springs in the basin-edge uplift fracture are in zonal distribution and with high-temperature geothermal water. There are still some divergences about the heat source mechanism of the basin. In this paper, queries to the view of mantle-derived heat source have been put forward, coming up with geochemical evidences to prove that the radiogenic heat of granite is the heat source within the mantle. Additionally, temperature curve is drawn based on the geothermal boring and geochemical geothermometer has been adopted for an estimation of the temperature and depth of the geothermal reservoir, it has been found that the surrounding mountains belong to the medium-temperature geothermal system while the area within the basin belongs to the high-temperature geothermal system with the temperature of borehole bottom reaching up to 175-180 ℃. In this paper, discussions on the problems existing in the calculation of geothermal gradient and the differences generated by the geothermal system have been carried out.
Abstract: The Xiao River sewage irrigation area in Luancheng where wastewater from Shijiazhuang flows through was taken as the research area. Five groundwater monitoring wells were set perpendicular to Xiao River, the research reveals the migration law and distribution characteristics of poisonous metal lead, through collecting and analyzing soil samples at different depths, investigating lithologic structure and pollution. The result shows that soil type has great impact on vertical lead distribution in aeration zone, which means that lead concentrates more in clay than in sand. Lead migrates fast in silty soil and silty clay, but slow in sand. The content of lead soil adsorbed decreases with grain size increasing. The most important factor influencing the distribution of lead is the soil type.