Abstract: Longling is characterized by a wide distribution of hydrothermal areas, among which the Banglazhang hydrothermal system is the most geothermally active. Banglazhang is marked by intensive hydrothermal activities including hot springs, geysers, fumaroles and hydrothermal explosions. The geothermal waters from the Longling region are mainly HCO3-Na type with low but comparable SO4 and Cl concentrations. Calculations based on a variety of chemical geothermometers and a K-Ca geobarometer indicate that the Banglazhang hydrothermal system has much higher subsurface temperature and CO2 pressure compared to the other systems such as Daheba, Dazhulin and Huangcaoba. However, geothermal water samples collected from all these alternative hydrothermal areas are either partially equilibrated with reservoir minerals or are immature. The silica-enthalpy relationships of Banglazhang geothermal waters indicate the presence of a deep geothermal fluid with an enthalpy value and silica concentration of 945 J/g (up to around 220 °C) and 339 mg/L. Our work indicates the Banglazhang area is a promising source in terms of long-term utilization of hydrothermal resources.
Abstract: In order to track the footprint of groundwater science teaching and research in China during the past years, a bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the database of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), which covered the time span from 1984 to present and included more than 2.6 million master and doctoral dissertations from hundreds of institutions of Mainland China. The bibliometric analysis summarized output, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research directions and hotspots in groundwater studies in China in the period of 1984-2014. A total of 1 396 groundwater-related dissertations including 1 161 master dissertations and 235 doctoral dissertations, contributed by 128 institutions distributed in 53 cities nationwide, were searched out in the database. It can be seen obviously that, the groundwater science teaching and research in China has experienced a notable growth in the past three decades especially during 2000-2014. Groundwater modeling, resource, and exploitation were the top three major subject categories; China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Jilin University and Chang’an University were the top three productive institutions together accounting for more than one third of the total dissertations and 50% of the doctoral dissertations, which further prompted the cities (Beijing, Changchun, and Xi’an) to become the top three productive cities. The dissertations generally covered all the international research topics, which indicated that hydrogeologists in China have tracked the international frontier closely during the past decades. The keywords analysis revealed that, (1) numerical modeling was still the hottest topic and PHREEQC, MODFLOW, GMS, and FEFLOW were the four most used softwares; (2) the topics related with groundwater pollution and quality developed steadily and rapidly; (3) environmental isotopes and GIS were frequently used tools for hydrogeological condition analysis, and spatial data processing respectively; and (4) the unsaturated zone as an integral part of aquifers attracted more and more attentions from hydrogeologists focus on saturated zone.
Abstract: As a typical alluvial-proluvial fan area in the Qaidam Basin, Nuomuhong is important to the research on paleoclimate reconstruction in proluvial fan areas and basin climate change and ecological protection. This paper analyzes features of 2H, 3H, 18O and 14C isotopes in Nuomuhong and reconstructs paleoclimate in this area. According to the results: since 28 ka B.P., the ground average temperature decreases and then increases in the Qaidam watershed, reaching the lowest in 17.7 ka B.P. before increasing gradually. In the past 30 000 years, average temperature has changed ranged from 1 ℃ to 5 ℃ in this area; the lowest temperature was different from today’s temperature only by 3 ℃. This shows that climate conditions and natural environment in this area have been relatively stable in the past 30 000 years.
Abstract: The compilation of serial maps of karst geology in China and Southeast Asia is a project under the “One Belt One Road” geological survey plan granted by China Geological Survey. This paper summarized the research trend of geoscientific mapping in China and Southeast Asia and introduced the significance, contents, technical routes, operating methods and progress of the project. Through bilateral and multilateral cooperation, this project builded an international cooperation platform for mapping and completes the preliminary compilation of related karst geological maps in China and Southeast Asia, thus filling up the blank of karst geological maps in this region.
Abstract: This study reviews the distribution of groundwater salinity in an arid desert transition zone. By combining field experiments and computer simulation models we make a comprehensive analysis of the formation mechanism of fresh groundwater in relation to the paleogeographic conditions of lithofacies, the geochemical characteristics of the aquifer media, salt deliverability in the vadose zone and prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The results demonstrate that (1) the lacustrine facies deposition stratum of the Huanhe formation in the Cretaceous system provides a brackish-salt groundwater environment; (2) the average salinity of parent rocks are approximately 440 mg/kg and 4 371 mg/kg in the Quaternary eolian sand and the Cretaceous Huanhe formation respectively, suggesting that parent rocks are the principal controlling factor in the distribution of groundwater quality given that mineral and chemical composition of the eolian sand is simpler than that of the Huanhe formation; (3) average groundwater flow rates are approximately 0.25 m/d and 0.1 m/d in eolian sand and Huanhe formation aquifers respectively, indicating that hydrodynamic conditions play an important role in driving in the formation and evolution of fresh groundwater; (4) The salinity deliverability in the vadose zone overlying the aeolian sand and Huanhe formation aquifers are approximately 15.97 mg/L and 220.42 mg/L respectively, signifying that the combination of lithology and salt content of vadose zone, rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration and concentration heavily influence the formation, distribution and evolution of groundwater quality. This study can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources in arid areas.
Abstract: As China and Southeast Asian countries have accelerated and globalized their economic development, karst environmental problems have become increasingly prominent and studying on and compiling maps of karst geology is quite important. Therefore, based on a wide collection of data in Southeast Asian countries, a cooperative map compilation has been carried out internationally. Through comprehensive research and analysis, a unified understanding has been achieved in terms of compiling principles, contents and representing methods, Distribution of Karst in Southern China and Southeast Asia (1/5 000 000) has been compiled, which provides foundations for environmental protection and scientific studies of karst geology.