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2017 Vol. 5, No. 4

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Clogging mechanism in the process of reinjection of used geothermal water: A simulation research on Xianyang No.2 reinjection well in a super-deep and porous geothermal reservoir
MA Zhi-yuan, XU Yong, ZHAI Mei-jing, WU Min
2017, 5(4): 311-325.
Abstract(712) PDF(986)
In the process of geothermal exploitation and utilization, the reinjection amount of used geothermal water in super-deep and porous reservoir is small and significantly decreases over time. This has been a worldwide problem, which greatly restricts the exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources. Based on a large amount of experiments and researches, the reinjection research on the tail water of Xianyang No. 2 well, which is carried out by combining the application of hydrogeochemical simulation, clogging mechanism research and the reinjection experiment, has achieved breakthrough results. The clogging mechanism and indoor simulation experiment results show: Factors affecting the tail water reinjection of Xianyang No. 2 well mainly include chemical clogging, suspended solids clogging, gas clogging, microbial clogging and composite clogging, yet the effect of particle migration on clogging has not been found; in the process of reinjection, chemical clogging was mainly caused by carbonates (mainly calcite), silicates (mainly chalcedony), and a small amount of iron minerals, and the clogging aggravated when the temperature rose; suspended solids clogging also aggravated when the temperature rose, which showed that particles formed by chemical reaction had a certain proportion in suspended solids.
Research on the fault controlling mechanism of geothermal water in Zhangzhou Basin
GAN Hao-nan, LIN Wen-jing, YUE Gao-fan, WANG Xiao, MA Feng, WANG Gui-ling
2017, 5(4): 326-335.
Abstract(633) PDF(474)
Fault has an important influence on the storage and movement of geothermal water. The Zhangzhou Basin is wholly located in a granodiorite rock mass. Due to the low permeability of granodiorite, faulted structure has an evident control action on the hydrothermal activity of geothermal fields. Hot springs in Zhangzhou Basin crack along Pingtan-Dongshan Fault to the northeastern direction and emerge along Fu’an-Nanjing Fault. Through measurement of the temperature of several hot springs in the Basin, we found the temperature along the northwestern direction of Zhangzhou-Tianbao Fault is high and the temperature gap between the two sides of Yangxi-Yuanshan Fault is huge; the estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature of geothermal water through quartz geothermometer indicates that the geothermal reservoir temperature of the northern area of Nanjing-Xiamen Fault is obviously higher than that of southern area. Such result indicates that Fault obviously obstructs underground heat source. Under the condition that the average geothermal gradient of the Zhangzhou Basin is set, the circulation depth of the geothermal water of the Zhangzhou Basin measured by geothermal reservoir temperature is 3 550-5 200 m and the circulation depth of the geothermal water of the north of Nanjing-Xiamen Fault is deeper than that of the South.
Analysis on variation characteristics of geothermal response in Liaoning Province
ZHU Wei, TANG Wen, LIU Qiang, ZHANG Mei-gui
2017, 5(4): 336-342.
Abstract(649) PDF(467)
Due to energy shortage and increasing environmental awareness, resources in shallow underground space have been rapidly exploited and utilized. So that studying variation characteristics of geothermal response in gneiss is necessary for effective and rational use of underground heat. Based on field test of thermal response in gneiss under hydrogeological survey project carried out in shallow geothermal energy development zone in Liaoning Province, this thesis analyzes mathematical statistics of geothermal response characteristics in main gneiss of Laoning Province. The initial formation temperature ranges from 10.80 ℃ to 15.80 ℃ according to field test. The statistical results show that in the condition of natural water content, the average thermal conductivity of Quaternary loose rocks comes as clay< silty< silty fine sand< medium sand< coarse sand< gravelly sand. This order is consistent with thermal conductivity characteristics of gneiss obtained in the laboratory. Formation temperature recovery in different strata follows as granite> medium sand> clay. This order is opposite to the absolute value of temperature recovery curve slope of corresponding lithology, which shows that the stratum with higher temperature recovery rate has lower temperature recovery curve slope.
Arsenic distribution and source in groundwater of Yangtze River Delta economic region, China
2017, 5(4): 343-353.
Abstract(745) PDF(1102)
This thesis focuses Arsenic (As) distribution and occurrence in groundwater of Yangtze River Delta economic region, East China. 2019 groundwater samples were collected to analyze 26 chemical compositions, including As. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out As source in groundwater. The results show that average As concentration in groundwater of this study is 9.33 μg/l, and maximum As concentration is up to 510 μg/l. The variation coefficient is 314.34%. High arsenic phreatic water (>10 μg/l) distributes along the Yangtze River and its estuary. Weak hydrodynamic conditions, wide pH value variation range and deteriorating environment are dominating factors, especially in Yangtze River Delta. The PCA suggests that arsenic in phreatic water is mainly of natural origin. Part of arsenic may directly originate from sediment organics and be related to organics decomposition.
The comprehensive evaluation on resource environmental bearing capacity of central cities in the Yellow River Delta-A case study on Dongying City
WANG Kui-feng, XU Meng, CHEN Xiao-man
2017, 5(4): 354-363.
Abstract(503) PDF(1147)
Dongying City, which is the most important central city in the Yellow River Delta, is located in the estuary of the Yellow River. With a short land formation time, ecological environment is very weak in this area. To realize the sustainable economic development of the Yellow River Delta, resource environment and resource environmental bearing capacity (REBC) must be improved. This study builds assessment system of regional REBC through resource and economic characteristics in Yellow River Delta and uses principal component analysis (PCA) method to evaluate REBC of five counties and districts in Dongying City in 2011-2015 on the dimensions of time and space. Results show that, on the time dimension, Guangrao County is ranked first, Dongying district second for four years and Hekou and Kenli districts with lower ranks in 2012-2015, indicating that more attention needs to be paid to REBC of Hekou and Dongying districts and these two districts should be included into key monitoring areas. From space scale, REBC in five counties and districts has been gradually improving. In order to further develop REBC in Dongying City, measures such as intensifying protection of urban ecological environment and developing circular economy, etc. should be implemented.
Hydrochemical and isotope characteristics of spring water discharging from Qiushe Loess Section in Lingtai, northwestern China and their implication to groundwater recharge
SONG Chao, HAN Gui-lin, WANG Pan, SHI Ying-chun, HE Ze
2017, 5(4): 364-373.
Abstract(578) PDF(1354)
The loess plateau in northwestern China with an area of 640 000 km2, which has developed the loess deposits with a thickness up to 200 m in typical areas, is regarded as a huge carbon stock like the karst area in southwestern China, and plays an important role in regional (even global) carbon cycle. But the spring discharging from loess is poorly known compared with karst spring so far. The objective of this study is to ascertain the characteristics and origin of spring at Qiushe Village, Lingtai County, Gansu Province by hydro-chemical and isotopic methods. The results show that the springs including LGQ, HMQ, YYQ and CZQ are the depression spring and belong to the same shallow aquifer with the well water JZJ. There are not distinct seasonal/diurnal-scale variations on the hydro-chemical characteristics of the spring water (LGQ, HMQ, YYQ, CZQ) and groundwater (JZJ). The hydro-chemical type of groundwater is Ca·Mg-HCO3. The D and O isotope ratios indicate that the precipitation is the main recharge source of groundwater in study area. And the results of tritium (TU) and Cl concentration suggest that the recharge cycle of groundwater may be more than 60 yrs. Our study shows that the water cycle in loess plateau including rainfall, infiltration, recharge and discharge exerts a continuous impact on carbon stock in loess, which should be paid more attention to in future research on the quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate.
A study on the supply relations of different groundwater in Qingdao subway line R3
CAO Lei, GU Zhao-jie, LIU Shi-an, SUN Ming-lei
2017, 5(4): 374-386.
Abstract(653) PDF(471)
In this paper, the correlation between different groundwater in the study area is analyzed by using the hydrological data from the hydrogeological test holes and the long-term observation holes based on the hydrogeological data between the Jinggangshan Road Station and the Jianianhua Station on the Qingdao Subway Line R3. The conclusions are as follows. When the drills are near the seashore (less than 50 m) and the backfilled formation has a large permeability coefficient (the backfilled components being coarse particles), the Quaternary pore water is connected with the seawater and there is correlation between the two. When the drills are far from the seashore (more than 50 m) or the backfilled formation has a small permeability coefficient, there is no correlation between the two. When the drills are near the seashore (less than 50 m) with developed bedrock fissure, the bedrock fissure water is connected with the seawater and there is correlation between the two. When the drills are far from the seashore (more than 50 m), or when the bedrock fissure is undeveloped, there is no correlation between the two. There exists an aquifer (mainly marine muddy silt clay layers and partially silt clay layers) between the Quaternary pore water and the bedrock fissure water, which blocks the connectivity between the two. Consequently, there is no correlation.
The Arc-view application in the field of hydrology and water resources
WANG Xiao-ming, XUE Fei
2017, 5(4): 387-396.
Abstract(530) PDF(729)
Through system design and analysis from the aspects of entity categories, hierarchical design, attribute design, and the final function design and realization of the system, this paper develops a software application based on Arc-view platform with a view to solving the deficiencies of conventional groundwater dynamic management in managing the spatial graphics data. Using this application into the supporting automatic monitoring system of groundwater level helps to achieve the automatic analysis of attribute data, and offer a new, visual and efficient automated management tool. Moreover, the computer geospatial modeling can realize the quick query and spatial analysis of geographic information, and thus facilitating dynamic simulation and prediction of the research object. However, a multi-functional, multi-level groundwater level information management system is a complex system engineering, which requires continuous improvement of the structure, development of functions, and supplement of user models.

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