Abstract: Realistic models for saturation, capillary pressure and relative permeability s-pc-kr relations are essential for accurate predictions in multiphase flow simulations. The primary object of this work is to investigate their influence on geological CO2 sequestration processes. In this work, the hysteresis effects on simulation results predicting geological CO2 storage are investigated on a synthetic 2D model and a geological setting built according to Aneth demonstration site. Simulation results showed that hysteretic relative permeability model should be included while the residual trapping mechanism is under investigation. The effects of hysteresis and WAG schemes were studied with a series of numerical simulations on a geological setting based on Aneth site. Our simulations demonstrate that the hysteresis effect is strong on residual trapping mechanisms and there is no significant effects of alternative WAG schemes for long term residual trapping in our conceptual model. The effects of WAG schemes and hysteresis are weak on dissolution trapping mechanisms.
Abstract: Guided by the theory of groundwater system, based on the groundwater level data from the northern basin of Laiyuan Spring area, the authors took into account factors such as the lithology, geological structure and topography to study the relationship between groundwater recharge, runoff and drainage in this area. It was concluded that the infiltration of atmospheric precipitation is the main source of groundwater supply in this area; the upper layer of the Spring area is distributed with the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician karst water, and the lower layer is filled with the Jixian system karst water. The upper layer of karst water supplies to the lower layer of karst water or the pore water in loose strata through the fault while the lower layer of karst water runs to the three strong runoff belts from the east and west sides of the watershed, southwards into the basin, partially replenishing the pore water in loose strata, or forming fault Springs (e.g. Nanguan Spring, Beihai Spring) when dolomite movement encounters faults. Replenished by atmospheric precipitation and the upper and lower layers of karst waters, the pore water in loose strata joins the groundwater in the southern basin and then flows eastwards, in the end it flows out of the system in Shangfanpu. Through the analyses of groundwater level data and hydrogeological drilling data, based on groundwater D and 18O isotope test results, the karst groundwater circulation system in the northern basin of Laiyuan Spring area is further verified, which provides hydrogeological basis for water resources development and utilization as well as protection in this area.
Abstract: Based on three typical mediums (sandy loam, loam and sandy clay loam) in Hebei Plain, this paper designs phreatic evaporation experiments under different lithology and phreatic depth. Based on the analysis of experimental data, the phreatic evaporation law and influencing factors of three mediums were studied. The results showed that: (1) The shallower the phreatic depth, the larger the phreatic evaporation. (2) Sandy clay loam has the biggest response to the increase of the phreatic depth, sandy loam is the second and loam is the smallest. (3) The limit depth of phreatic evaporation of sandy clay loam is about 3 m and that of loam and sandy loam is about 2 m and 3 m, seperately. (4) By fitting the daily evaporation of phreatic water and phreatic depth, the results showed that sandy loam and sandy clay loam are exponential functions and loam is power functions.
Abstract: Study on urban construction planning based on karst landscape protection contributes to sustainable development of urban construction in karst area. Jinan is a city famous for karst spring water. Karst landscape plays a decisive role in urban construction. Through hydrogeological analysis, the distribution characteristics of karst mountain, cave, gully and flat dam in Jinan are analyzed. It is revealed that various karst landforms are involved in the spring circulation process to varying degrees. Some karst landforms have been destroyed in the process of urban construction and the karst landscape has been overexploited resulting in the direct or indirect weakening of spring water recharge and infiltration capacity and the decrease of spring water flow. Through the study of the principle of organic combination of karst landscape and urban construction planning, on the basis of protecting the ecological environment of the south, paying attention to the overall protection of the karst geomorphology system and the principle of accessibility of the karst landscape, the development countermeasures guided by urban planning are put forward based on karst landforms protection. On the basis of fully considering the special karst landform conditions in Jinan, the countermeasures are that the ecological control red line of urban construction planning should be set up based on karst mountains and valleys in southern of Jinan City. It is suggested that the bare carbonate rock continuous mountain foot line in the direct recharge area should be taken as the south control red line of urban development and included in the overall planning. The urban landscape is mainly displayed in the main axis based on karst mountains and springs, constructing East-West Axis-characteristic Landscape Belt along the Wufeng Mountain-Langmao Mountain-Hero Mountain-Qianfo Mountain-Long cave-Panlong cave-Jinping Mountain line and North-South Axis Landscape Belt along the Baotu Spring- Qianfo Mountain line, Baiquan-Panlong cave line, Baimai spring-Dajian Mountain line. Based on the karst river valleys and the river system, the urban spatial pattern is constructed, forming ecological corridor, restoring infiltration function of river. The form of urban construction should be shaped based on karst landform and the river system. The main form is semi-star like radiation type and the combination of central intensive type and zonal type. Based on the whole protection of karst geomorphology system and the scientific molding of karst landscape, the ecological landscape city with the symbiosis of spring and urban can be built.
Abstract: The construction and hydrogeological area in the low hill, which is northwest of Laixi City and in the east of Shandong Province more precisely, is one of Dagu River’s groundwater source. Regarding COD as the typical pollutant according to general situation of groundwater pollution in aforementioned area, a three-dimensional advection-dispersion model was established to simulate the transport of organic pollutants under two accident conditions. In addition, the effect of corresponding dispersity was analyzed. The results show that COD transport is mainly in accordance with the direction of groundwater flow, pollutant concentration and its gradient as well as the rule of narrower pollution range in deeper stratum. Moreover, COD is mainly transported and diffused in groundwater of sandy soil in the first and second layers. However, under accident condition II, the pollutant concentration begins to decay gradually after its transport and diffusion tends to be stable. Besides, in terms of dominance, dispersion is to transverse transport of pollutants what advection is to longitudinal transport. If considering random dispersion, the final results see higher peak concentration of COD and longer transverse distance from pollution center compared to transport route. What’s more, the pollution plume changes and concentration isocline becomes slightly irregular.
Abstract: The assessment of hydrochemical quality of groundwater is very important to explore its nature and usefulness. In this paper, groundwater quality evaluation is carried out in the Balad district, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq. A total of 28 groundwater samples are collected from shallow tube wells and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. Groundwater suitability for drinking is evaluated based on the World Health Organization (WHO) and Iraqi standards, and suitability of groundwater for irrigation is assessed based on various hydrochemical parameters. The results reveal that the dominant types of groundwater based on piper diagram are mixed CaMgCl and CaCl. Gibbs ratio indicates that the groundwater in the studied area is affected by the evaporation process. The cation-anion exchange reaction in the studied area demonstrates that 54% of the groundwater samples indicate a direct base (cation-anion) exchange reaction, while 46% of the groundwater samples indicating the chloro-alkaline disequilibrium. Furthermore, generally all of the groundwater samples are unsuitable for drinking and irrigation. Cluster analysis reveals two different groups of similarities between the groundwater samples, reflecting different pollution levels in the studied area.