Abstract: This paper aims to study the influence of the number and distribution of drill samples on the simulation accuracy of the lithology field. This research mainly applies the variation function method in geo-statistics, and determines important indicators such as the variation, and then the lithology field is simulated by sequence index simulation. It is shown that (1) simulation error decreases with the increase of sampling density; (2) at the scale and complexity of this study, when the sampling density reaches 40 /km2, the average error of the lithology field simulation can be less than 2.0%; (3) in the study mode of examples, the simulation results of random sampling in the whole region are the most ideal, with an average error of 5.4%. The average error of the simulation results of the centralized sampling is about 10 times that of the random sampling method; (4) known from the influence analysis of the degree of study sample unevenness influence on the imitation results, under the same sample size, the simulation error decreases with the increase of the most adjacent index. When the nearest index reaches 1, the simulation error will be less than 6%, and the error variable range is within 3%.
Abstract: Identification of water potential areas in arid regions is a crucial element for the enhancement of their water resources and socio-economic development. In fact, water resources system-planning can be used to make various decisions and implement management of water resources policies. The purpose of this study is to identify groundwater storage areas in the high Guir Basin by implementing Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing methods. The required data for this study can be summarized into five critical factors: Topography (slope), lithology, rainfall, rock fracture and drainage. These critical factors have been converted by the GIS into thematic maps. For each critical parameter, a coefficient with weight was attributed according to its importance. The map of potential groundwater storage areas is obtained by adding the products (coefficient × weight) of the five parameters. The results show that 50% to 64% of the total area of the High Guir Basin is potentially rich in groundwater, where most of fracture systems are intensely developed. The obtained results are validated with specific yield of the aquifer in the study area. It is noted that there is a strong positive correlation between excellent groundwater potential zones with high flows of water points and it diminishes with low specific yield with poor potential zones.
Abstract: The prediction of the probability of cavitation occurrence to prevent serious damages in the spillways is the major concern for hydraulic engineers. In this research, the three-dimensional model of Shahid Madani Dam’s spillway was simulated with the Flow 3D software and by the comparison of numerical model results with the experi-mental data, the probability of occurrence of the cavitation phenomenon has been investigated. The flow parameters including pressure, velocity, and water depth were calculated for three different flow rates of 495 m3/s, 705 m3/s and 2 205 m3/s respectively. The Renormalization Group (RNG) turbulence model was used to simulate current turbulence. Comparison of simulation results for pressure, velocity and water depth with the results of the experimental model with two statistical indices Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) showed that the numerical simulation results are in good consistency with experimental model. However, simulation results indicated that at any flow rates with a return period of 1 000 years, probable maximum flood and designed flow rates, the cavitation number is not lower than the critical cavitation number; Therefore, it is predicted that the cavitation phenomenon in Shahid Madani Dam’s spillway will not happen.
Abstract: To investigate the evolution trend of water quality in Dongping Lake after South-North Water Transfer Project operation as well as to ensure the safe usage of the water receiving areas, water samples were collected and determined before and after water delivery in different hydrological seasons. Then, comprehensive pollution index method, comprehensive nutrition state index method and health risk assessment model were utilized to evaluate the quality, nutrition, and health risk of Dongping Lake water. Results showed that the quality of Dongping Lake water still met level III (light pollution) no matter before or after water delivery. The nutrition state was improved from light eutropher before water delivery to mesotropher after water delivery. The health risk level was reduced from high-medium before water delivery to medium level after water delivery. In summary, the operation of the eastern route of South-North Water Transfer Project is beneficial for water environment improvement of Dongping Lake.
Abstract: Seawater flows towards the inlands along with the rivers and canals, through the process of infiltration and leaks in the ground water characterized by high concentrations of soluble salts. High salinity concentrations can make groundwater unsuitable for public consumption and surface water unsuitable for irrigation and agricultural activities. This study envisages the fluctuations of ground and surface water quality of Bentota area in the presence of seawater intrusion. The temporal and spatial variations of eleven water parameters were monitored by collecting the water samples during one year period. Spatial distributions were assessed by applying the Inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method in Arc GIS 10.5 software. Water quality is assessed on the integration of all parameters in terms of an index based on the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The significant linear relationship between the considered parameters of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) were identified applying correlation analysis using SPSS software. All parameters of surface water were above the permissible limits of WHO standards. Surface water quality index values with respect to 60% of canals show very poor quality (>1 250) of surface water indicating their unsuitability for irrigation activities. Those surface water bodies indicated very highly saline conditions during dry months. The spatial distribution of ground water quality index with respect to the highest parameter values of each sampling location indicates that 52.2% of total land extent of Bentota Divisional Secretariat Division (DSD) has good quality of ground water which is suitable for drinking. Its 47.2% of total land extent has poor quality of ground water for drinking purpose and less than 0.5% of the area consists of excellent or very poor quality of ground water in each. This study helps to manage coastal aquifers by understanding the extreme water quality conditions and coastal salinity.
Abstract: Factures caused by deformation and destruction of bedrocks over coal seams can easily lead to water flooding (inrush) in mines, a threat to safety production. Fractures with high hydraulic conductivity are good watercourses as well as passages for inrush in mines and tunnels. An accurate height prediction of water flowing fractured zones is a key issue in today's mine water prevention and control. The theory of leveraging BP artificial neural network in height prediction of water flowing fractured zones is analysed and app-lied in Qianjiaying Mine as an example in this paper. Per the comparison with traditional calculation results, the BP artificial neural network better reflects the geological condi-tions of the research mine areas and produces more objective, accurate and reasonable results, which can be applied to predict the height of water flowing fractured zones.
Abstract: Groundwater yield in the Kenya Rift is highly unsustainable owing to geological variability. In this study, field hydraulic characterization was performed by using geo-electric approaches. The relations between electrical-hydraulic (eh) conductivities were modeled hypothetically and calibrated empirically. Correlations were based on the stoch-astic models and field-scale hydraulic parameters were contingent on pore-level parameters. By considering variation in pore-size distributions over eh conduction interval, the relations were scaled-up for use at aquifer-level. Material-level electrical conductivities were determined by using Vertical Electrical Survey and hydraulic conductivities by analyzing aquifer tests of eight boreholes in the Olbanita aquifer located in Kenya rift. VES datasets were inverted by using the computer code IP2Win. The main result is that ln T=0.537 (ln Fa)+3.695; the positive gradient indicating eh conduction through poresurface networks and a proxy of weathered and clayey materials. An inverse (1/F-K) correlation is observed. Hydraulic parameters determined using such approaches may possibly contri-bute significantly towards sustainable yield management and planning of groundwater resources.
Abstract: In many circumstances involving heat and mass transfer issues, it is considered impractical to measure the input flux and the resulting state distribution in the domain. Therefore, the need to develop techniques to provide solutions for such problems and estimate the inverse mass flux becomes imperative. Adaptive state estimator (ASE) is increasingly becoming a popular inverse estimation technique which resolves inverse problems by incorporating the semi-Markovian concept into a Bayesian estimation technique, thereby developing an inverse input and state estimator consisting of a bank of parallel adaptively weighted Kalman filters. The ASE is particularly designed for a system that encompasses independent unknowns and /or random switching of input and measurement biases. The present study describes the scheme to estimate the groundwater input contaminant flux and its transient distribution in a conjectural two-dimensional aquifer by means of ASE, which in particular is because of its unique ability to efficiently handle the process noise giving an estimation of keeping the relative error range within 10% in 2-dimensional problems. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed estimator presents decent estimation performance for both smoothly and abruptly varying input flux scenarios. Results also show that ASE enjoys a better estimation performance than its competitor, Recursive Least Square Estimator (RLSE) due to its larger error tolerance in greater process noise regimes. ASE’s inherent deficiency of being slower than the RLSE, resulting from the complexity of algorithm, was also noticed. The chosen input scenarios are tested to calculate the effect of input area and both estimators show improved results with an increase in input flux area especially as sensors are moved closer to the assumed input location.