Abstract: Fracture seepage and heat transfer in the geothermal reservoir of carbonate rocks after the reinjection of low temperature geothermal return water is a complex coupling process,which is also the frontier of geothermal production and reinjection research. Based on the research of cascade comprehensive development of geothermal resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Xian County),the carbonate geothermal reservoir of Wumishan formation in the geothermal field in Xian County is investigated. With the development of the discrete fracture network model and the coupling model of seepage and heat transfer,the numerical solution of seepage field and temperature field with known fracture network is reached using the finite element software COMSOL,and the coupling process of seepage flow and heat in carbonate rocks is revealed. The results show that the distribution of temperature field of fractured rocks in geothermal reservoir of carbonate rocks has strong non-uniformity and anisotropy. The fracture network is interpenetrated,which constitutes the dominant channel of water conduction,and along which the fissure water moves rapidly. Under the influence of convective heat transfer and conductive heat transfer,one of the main factors to be considered in the study of thermal breakthrough is to make the cold front move forward rapidly. When the reinjection and production process continues for a long time and the temperature of the geothermal reservoir on the pumping side drops to a low level,the temperature of bedrocks is still relatively high and continues to supply heat to the fissure water,so that the temperature of the thermal reservoir on the pumping side will not decrease rapidly to the water temperature at the inlet of reinjection,but will gradually decrease after a long period of time,showing an obvious long tail effect. The distribution of fractures will affect the process of seepage and heat transfer in carbonate reservoirs,which should be considered in the study of fluid thermal coupling in carbonate reservoirs.
Abstract: Due to its large heat transfer area and stable thermal performance,the middle-deep coaxial borehole heat exchanger (CBHE) has become one of the emerging technologies to extract geothermal energy. In this paper,a numerical modeling on a three-dimensional unsteady heat transfer model of a CBHE was conducted by using software FEFLOW,in which the model simulation was compared with the other studies and was validated with experimental data. On this basis,a further simulation was done in respect of assessing the influencing factors of thermal extraction performance and thermal influence radius of the CBHE. The results show that the outlet temperature of the heat exchanger decreases rapidly at the initial stage,and then tended to be stable; and the thermal influence radius increases with the increase of borehole depth. The heat extraction rate of the borehole increases linearly with the geothermal gradient. Rock heat capacity has limited impact on the heat extraction rate,but has a great influence on the thermal influence radius of the CBHE. When there is groundwater flow in the reservoir,the increase of groundwater velocity will result in the rise of both outlet temperature and heat extraction rate. The heat affected zone extends along with the groundwater flow direction; and its influence radius is increasing along with flow velocity. In addition,the material of the inner pipe has a significant effect on the heat loss in the pipe,so it is recommended that the material with low thermal conductivity should be used if possible.
Abstract: The Guide sedimentary basin is located in the northeastern part of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,which is rich in geothermal resources. However,exploitation of the geothermal resources has so far been limited,because of limited understanding of the resources quantity and storage gained from scientific researches. In this study,using a typical cross section across the basin and taking into account its geothermal and geological conditions,a new water-heat coupled model was built and associated modelling was done by the software TOUGH2. During modelling process,the accuracy and applicability of the model was confirmed through the calibration of relevant parameters for modelling the heat and water transport and the formation of geothermal reservoir across the basin,with particular focus on the Neogene geothermal field. Results show that the groundwater that flows from the basin margins to the center is heated by the Neogene and Paleogene sedimentary rocks with high geothermal gradients. Since the east-west extending fault F1 is conductive,it acts as preferential flow paths which on one hand provide additional and rapid flows to the thermal reservoir; and on the other hand,cool down the thermal water to a certain extent due to the infiltration of shallower water sources in the vicinity of the fault. Furthermore,the estimated geothermal resources quantity is close to that of previous studies. In comparison with the Paleogene rock formations,the Neogene geothermal reservoir shows a better nature in terms of water content,aquifer permeability and resources exploitability,although the resource quantity of the Paleogene reservoir is considerable.
Abstract: The physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of the water in Taladanda canal and associated water-borne diseases,from which the dwellers have suffered,were studied,by using statistical method. Overuse and the addition of the wastes with sources from urbane industrial sectors,as well as the decrease in water level have caused the canal water quality declined drastically and subsequently led to extensive eutrophication and bacterial contamination. According to the water sample analytical results,the water is lightly acidic with the pH value of 4.5~6.7. The measured indexes,such as total dissolved solid (TDS),electrical conductivity (EC),total suspended solid (TSS),Mn,Zn,Al,Fe,Cu,Cr,and Hg etc,mostly have very high concentrations which are higher than permissible limit,indicating that the canal water is completely unsuitable for human consumption. Furthermore,the biological analysis shows that the total coliform (TC) is in the range of 45.9~30.2 in per 100 mL water in April,30.5~25.3/100 mL in July and 52.9~35.4/100 mL in December,respectively. Similarly,fecal coliform (FC) ranges from 12.8 to 10.1,10.5~7.5 and 13.1~6.4 per 100 mL water in the months of April,July and December respectively. As a result,people who use the water have suffered from different water-borne diseases. On the basis of disease data derived from hospital observations in a period of three years,there had been 4 284 people affected by different water-borne diseases from 2016 to 2018.
Abstract: Hebei Province is rich in geological heritage resources due to its diverse landforms and unique natural conditions. However,detailed investigation and study of the resources are still limited,and a systematic survey conducted on a small scale has not been fully implemented. In this paper,the resource types and characteristics of the geological heritage in Shunping County are systematically discussed,on the basis of field investigation and scientific evaluation. With reference to the existing criteria for geological heritage resources survey,the heritage values and corresponding levels were assessed by using multi-factor quantitative evaluation approach. The results show that there are 33 geological heritage sites in Shunping County,which fall into 3 categories,10 classes and 17 subcategories. Among them,2 heritage sites are above the provincial level,14 heritage sites are at the provincial level and 17 ones are below the level. These heritage sites are not only natural resources with great tourism potential,but also valuable asset in geological research,human history,ecological conservation,scientific education and some other aspects. It is hence of great significance to conduct the scientific and reasonable appraisal for having a better understanding,good protection and development of the geological heritage resources in Hebei Province.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a new kind of contaminant widely existing in the surface water and groundwater environment. In recent years, PPCPs have been received widely attention from many researchers. The migration and transformation of PPCPs are mainly photolysis, biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis in aquifer environment. The influencing factors of PPCPs migration include PPCPs' own physical and chemical properties, types and contents of organic matter, pH, lithology, geotechnical structure and the thickness of vadose zone, etc. At present, the research of PPCPs in China is still in the primary stage, especially on the contaminant in aquifer system. Therefore, the research in this field needs to be further strengthened.
Abstract: Geoelectric and hydrochemical approaches are employed to delineate the ground-water potential zones in District Okara, a part of Bari Doab, Punjab, Pakistan. Sixty-seven VES surveys are conducted with the Electrical Resistivity Meter. The resultant resistivity verses depth model for each site is estimated using computer-based software IX1D. Aquifer thickness maps and interpreted resistivity maps were generated from interpreted VES results. Dar-Zarrouk parameters, transverse resistance (TR), longitudinal conductance (SL) and anisotropy (λ) were also calculated from resistivity data to delineate the potential zones of aquifer. 70% of SL value is ≤3S, 30% of SL value is > 3S. According to SL and TR values, the whole area is divided into three potential zones, high, medium and low potential zones. The spatial distribution maps show that north, south and central parts of study area are marked as good potential aquifer zones. Longitudinal conductance values are further utilized to determine aquifer protective capacity of area. The whole area is characterized by moderate to good and up to some extent very good aquifer protective area on the basis of SL values. The groundwater samples from sixty-seven installed tube wells are collected for hydro-chemical analysis. The electrical conductivity values are determined. Correlation is then developed between the EC (μS/cm) of groundwater samples vs. interpreted aquifer resistivity showing R2 value 0.90.
Abstract: Hydrogeological map is one of the important carriers of groundwater related information. It directly reflects the hydrogeological conditions and previous investigation and research results of a mapping area. The hydrogeological map of China is a map reflecting the characteristics of hydrogeology and groundwater dynamics on a national scale. On the basis of the hydrogeological map of China (1: 4 000 000) compiled in 1988, this map compilation attempted to update and enhance the existing map, with the latest survey results from the project of National Investigation and Evaluation of Groundwater Resources and Environmental Problems led by China Geological Survey. Task of the mapping program included redefining groundwater types, quantifying the classification standard of the groundwater and adding the pore-fissure water in laterite layer of hilly basin. The multilayer structures for porous, karst and porous-fractured groundwater and their water-rich grades are reflected on the map. Based on the comprehensive summary of the latest hydrogeological data of China, this research conducts an in-depth analysis of the regional distribution characteristics of groundwater in China, utilizes a digital mapping process and establishes a cartographic database for the purpose of further use. With the enrichment of the content and the continuous improvement of cognitive level, mapping content can be updated quickly, which has practical significance for the concept of surveying and mapping and scientific popularization.
Abstract: Dealing with kinetic energy is one of the most important problems in hydraulic structures, and this energy can damage downstream structures. This study aims to study energy dissipation of supercritical water flow passing through a sudden contraction. The experiments were conducted on a sudden contraction with 15 cm width. A 30 cm wide flume was installed. The relative contraction ranged from 8.9 to 9.7, where relative contraction refers to the ratio of contraction width to initial flow depth. The Froude value in the investigation varied from 2 to 7. The contraction width of numerical simulation was 5~15 cm, the relative contraction was 8.9~12.42, and the Froude value ranged from 8.9~12.42. In order to simulate turbulence, the k-ε RNG model was harnessed. The experimental and numerical results demonstrate that the energy dissipation increases with the increase of Froude value. Also, with the sudden contraction, the rate of relative depreciation of energy is increased due to the increase in backwater profile and downstream flow depth. The experimentation verifies the numerical results with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and the root mean square error is 0.02.