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2021 Vol. 9, No. 3

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2021-3 Contents
2021, (3): 1-1.
Abstract(201) FullText HTML (115) PDF(2)
Study of diclofenac removal by the application of combined zero-valent iron and calcium peroxide nanoparticles in groundwater
Wen Liang, Nian-qing Zhou, Chao-meng Dai, Yan-ping Duan, Lang Zhou, Yao-jen Tu
2021, 9(3): 171-180. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.001
Abstract(1258) FullText HTML (529) PDF(104)
Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in groundwater, posing a great threat to the environment and human health due to its toxicity. To mitigate the DCF contamination, experiments on DCF degradation by the combined process of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) and nano calcium peroxide (nCaO2) were performed. A batch experiment was conducted to examine the influence of the adding dosages of both nZVI and nCaO2 nanoparticles and pH value on the DCF removal. In the meantime, the continuous-flow experiment was done to explore the sustainability of the DCF degradation by jointly adding nZVI/nCaO2 nanoparticles in the reaction system. The results show that the nZVI/nCaO2 can effectively remove the DCF in the batch test with only 0.05 g/L nZVI and 0.2 g/L nCaO2 added, resulting in a removal rate of greater than 90% in a 2-hour reaction with an initial pH of 5. The degradation rate of DCF was positively correlated with the dosage of nCaO2, and negatively correlated with both nZVI dosage and the initial pH value. The order of significance of the three factors is identified as pH value > nZVI dosage > nCaO2 dosage. In the continuous-flow reaction system, the DCF removal rates remained above 75% within 150 minutes at the pH of 5, with the applied dosages of 0.5 g/L for nZVI and 1.0 g/L for nCaO2. These results provide a theoretical basis for the nZVI/nCaO2 application to remove DCF in groundwater.
Clogging mechanisms and preventive measures in artificial recharge systems
M Shahbaz Akhtar, Yoshitaka Nakashima, Makoto Nishigaki
2021, 9(3): 181-201. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.002
Abstract(1580) FullText HTML (660) PDF(133)
Groundwater which occurs in fractured rock or porous aquifers or other geological weak zones such as faults and fractures is usually extracted via boreholes, hand wells or other sources such as springs. Water scarcity has become a severe problem due to many factors, such as an alarming increase in population and per capita water consumption, over exploitation of groundwater resources and abrupt global climatic change along with its related eco-environmental geological problems. In such situation, application of artificial recharge systems (e.g. surface recharge basin and deep injection well systems) can help to effectively manage and augment the unitization of groundwater resources. However, the clogging problem, which may be caused by a complex interdependent mechanisms of physical, chemical and biological has been a challenge for the efficacy and the implementation of recharge facilities. Clogging can reduce the permeability, recharge rate and longevity of recharge facilities and increase the operational and maintenance costs. Major influencing factors associated with the occurrence of clogging include the chemical composition of groundwater (both the recharge water and native groundwater), aquifer medium and microbial diversity, together with other environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, total dissolved solids, total soluble salts, pH, Eh, nutrients, gases, carbonates and others; these factors ultimately increase the piezometric head but reduce the permeability and infiltration rates of porous/seepage media. Pretreatment of recharge water can minimize the potential clogging. In the case of clogged wells, rehabilitation methods need to be deployed. In the meantime, there is an urgent needs to understand the basic causes and developmental processes/mechanisms of clogging in order to mitigate this problem. This paper reviews the major clogging mechanisms and their possible preventive measures and redevelopments in artificial recharge systems.
Evolutionary trend of water cycle in Beichuan River Basin of China under the influence of vegetation restoration
Liang Zhu, Jing-tao Liu, Ming-nan Yang, Yu-xi Zhang, De-ping Wen
2021, 9(3): 202-211. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.003
Abstract(760) FullText HTML (303) PDF(52)
To understand the influence of vegetation restoration on the water cycle in semiarid areas, the effects of vegetation restoration on evolution of the key elements of water cycle were clarified by analyzing the evolutionary trend of atmospheric precipitation, ecological consumption water, and surface runoff on a river basin scale on the basis of analytical results of the changes in vegetation coverage and the long-term meteorological and hydrological monitoring data of Beichuan River Basin. The results show that the vegetation cover in the Beichuan River basin has rapidly increased in the hilly and mountainous areas since the 1980s, especially from 2000 to 2019, with the maximum and average vegetation cover rates increased by 14.98% and 52.2%, respectively. During 1956-2016, the annual precipitation in the basin remained relatively stable; the annual surface runoff slightly declined, with an average attenuation rate of 20 million m3/10a. The main reason for the runoff decline is the increase in ecological water induced by the vegetation restoration, which has changed the spatial-temporal distribution of the water from atmospheric precipitation in the basin. Spatially, more precipitation was converted into ecological water. As a result, the remnant runoff supplied to the lower reaches reduced accordingly. Temporally, more precipitation participated in the soil water - groundwater cycle, thus prolonging the outward drainage period of the precipitation. Moreover, the large-scale vegetation restoration induced a significant decrease in the surface wind speed, evaporation from water surface and drought index. As a result, a virtuously mutual feedback relationship was formed between the vegetation and meteorological elements. Therefore, vegetation restoration is of great significance for the improvement in the water conservation capacity and semiarid climate conditions in the Beichuan River basin.
Hydro-geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in Dschang town (West Cameroon): Alkali and alkaline-earth elements ascertain lithological and anthropogenic constraints
Yemeli Elida Joelle, Temgoua Emile, Kengni Lucas, Ambrosi Jean-Paul, Momo-nouazi Mathieu, Silatsa-Tedou Francis Brice, Wamba Franck Robean, Tchakam-Kamtchueng Brice
2021, 9(3): 212-224. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.004
Abstract(837) FullText HTML (268) PDF(70)
This study focuses on the sources of alkali and alkaline-earth elements based on the geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in Dschang concerning environmental and anthropogenic constraints. A comprehensive set of 50 samples from groundwater and surface water were analyzed by ICP-MS and processed by spatial interpolation in a GIS environment. The results highlight a geochemical anomaly at the center of the densely inhabited area subject to a profusion of open dumps discharges. This anomaly with the highest spatial contents of Be (Cs, Rb, Mg) suggests an anthropogenic source that demarcates with the lowest alkali and alkaline-earth elements on the peripheral area of Dschang. Other findings include lithological constraints with volcanic rocks being the main source compared to granitoid. The study points out good correlations between Be, Cs, Rb and Mg spatial distributions and physico-chemical parameters of waters (K, EC, TDS), and inversely with the lowest pH. pH is established as the most functioning physico-chemical constraint of alkali and alkaline-earth mobility in Dschang. The pH lowest values within the geochemical anomaly also highlight the impact of human activities on water acidity, which later enhance elements mobility and enrichment. Despite low elements contents relative to WHO standards, our findings point out an example of anthropogenic impact on water geochemistry linked to solid waste pollution; it also demonstrates significant anthropogenic changes of environmental physico-chemical parameters of prime importance in the mobility and distribution of elements in the study area. Similar assessments should be extended in major towns in Cameroon.
Quantifying groundwater recharge and discharge for the middle reach of Heihe River of China using isotope mass balance method
Han Zhang, Zong-yu Chen, Chang-yuan Tang
2021, 9(3): 225-232. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.005
Abstract(576) FullText HTML (203) PDF(46)
Quantifying the inflow and outflow of groundwater is essential to understand the interaction between surface water and groundwater. It is difficult to determine these elements in relation to groundwater recharge and discharge to the river, because they cannot be directly measured through site specific study. The methods of isotope mass balance combining with water budget were used to quantify the groundwater recharge from and discharge to the Heihe River, northwest China. The mean isotope ratios of monthly monitoring data for one hydrological year were selected to be the isotope rations of end members in isotope mass balance. The results from the isotope mass balance analysis, incorporating with the 35-year hydrological data, suggest that about 0.464×109 m3/a of runoff flowing out Qilian Mountains is contributed to groundwater recharge (about 28% inflow of the Heihe River), while about 1.163×109 m3/a of runoff is discharged from groundwater in the middle reach of the river, which accounts for about 46% of river runoff in the basin. The analysis offers a unique, broad scale studies and provides valuable insight into surface water-groundwater interaction in arid area.
Numerical modelling of the dynamic process of oil displacement by water in sandstone reservoirs with random pore structures
Fei Gao, Feng Liu, Hua-jun Wang
2021, 9(3): 233-244. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.006
Abstract(540) FullText HTML (210) PDF(34)
In order to maintain the production rate of a reservoir and improve the displacement efficiency, it is crucial to have an in-depth understanding of the process of oil displacement by water. However, with respect to the conceptualization of porous media of a reservoir, very limited efforts have been made to the pore structures inside the reservoirs. In this paper, the pore structures of a sandstone reservoir were generated by using the method of random growth algorithm. Based on the randomly generated model, a theoretical model to describe the dynamic process of oil displacement by water in the sandstone reservoir was established, and then corresponding numerical modelling was performed. The effects of the displacement velocity, the viscosity ratio of oil-water phase and the porosity of reservoirs on the displacement performance were also analyzed. Results show that due to a great difference in the viscosity between oil and water phases, the moving interface of water phase is not uniform, and the viscous fingering occurs, tending to proceed along the direction with the minimum flow resistance. There is not a linear relationship between the displacement velocity and the displacement efficiency. Too high displacement velocities do not lead to much better displacement efficiency, while a higher pressure drop is caused. Choosing a proper displacement velocity is indispensable in practical engineering. A lower oil-water viscosity ratio is more favorable to obtain high displacement efficiency. Under the present simulation conditions, when the viscosity ratio is 1.2, the displacement efficiency reaches 96.2% at a moderate Reynolds number. The porosity is not a sole factor determining the displacement performance. Even for the same porosity, the shape and length of preferential flow paths are different and randomly distributed, causing a different displacement performance. A large tortuosity tends to result in a low hydraulic conductivity and displacement efficiency.
Source identification of methane in groundwater in shale gas development areas: A critical review of the state of the art, prospects, and future challenges
Zhao-xian Zheng, Ling-xia Liu, Xiao-shun Cui
2021, 9(3): 245-255. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.007
Abstract(807) FullText HTML (346) PDF(49)
Shale gas exploration and development carry the risk of causing groundwater contamination and enhancing the greenhouse effect through methane leakage. Identifying the source of abnormal methane in groundwater of shale gas development areas is becoming a research hotspot in the fields of groundwater and climate change. This paper reviews the traditional methodology in identifying sources of methane and its deficiency in groundwater application. Then potential and advantages of using noble gases were discussed on how to overcome these limitations of the traditional method. Finally, based on noble gas, the current application status and future challenges of methane source identification in groundwater were analyzed. It can be summarized as: (1) due to chemical and/or microbial processes in the aquifer system, the traditional methodology for methane source identification, which utilizes molecular and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbon gas, has multiple interpretationsand large uncertainties; (2) the non-reactive nature and well-characterized isotopic compositions of noble gases in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and crust, make noble gases ideal indicators of the sources of methane in groundwater. Moreover, the mechanism of formation and release of crustal noble gas prevent shale gas signatures from being interfered with by natural gas; (3) the key scientific tasks surrounding the use of noble gases for methane source identification include quantitatively separating the components of atmosphere-derived, mantle-derived, and crust-derived noble gases from the bulk noble gases in groundwater. It quantifies the solubility fractionation of noble gases induced by water-gas interaction during methane migration to the aquifer. The application of noble gases can bring a new perspective to tracing the source of methane in groundwater and is of great significance to the protection of groundwater quality in shale gas development areas and mitigation of climate change.
Identification of suitable sites for open and bore well using ground magnetic survey
A Muthamilselvan
2021, 9(3): 256-268. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.03.008
Abstract(873) FullText HTML (319) PDF(45)
The study aims to identify a suitable site for open and bore well in a farmhouseusing ground magnetic survey in south India. It also aims to define depth to granitoid and structural elements which traverse the selected area. Magnetic data (n=84) measured, processed and interpreted as qualitative and quantitatively. The results of total magnetic intensities indicate that the area is composed of linear magnetic lows trending NE-SW direction and circular to semi-circular causative bodies. The magnetic values ranged from −137 nT to 2345 nT with a mean of 465 nT. Reduction to equator shows significant shifting of causative bodies in the southern and northern directions. Analytical signal map shows exact boundary of granitic bodies. Cosine directional filter has brought out structural element trending NE-SW direction. Results of individual profile brought to light structurally weak zone between 90 m and 100 m in all the profile lines. Sudden decrease of magnetic values from 2 042 nT to 126 nT noticed in profile line 6 between 20 m and 30 m indicates fault occurrence. Magnetic breaks obtained from these maps were visualized, interpreted and identified two suitable sites for open and bore well. Radially averaged power spectrum estimates depth of shallow and deep sources in 5 m and 50 m, respectively. Euler method has also been applied to estimate depth of granitoid and structural elements using structural indexes 0, 1, 2, and 3 and found depth ranges from <10 m to >90 m. Study indicates magnetic method is one of the geophysical methods suitable for groundwater exploration and site selection for open and borewells.

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