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2023 Vol. 11, No. 1

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Perspective
Opportunities and challenges for geological work in China in the new era
Min Wang
2023, 11(1): 1-3. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280001
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Editor’s Note: In celebration of the Geological Society of China’s centennial anniversary, a seminar titled “Groundwater and Healthy & Green Development” was held on November 24‒25, 2022. It was hosted by the Geological Society of China and organised by its committees on Hydrogeology, Geothermy, Medical Geology, and Mine Water Prevention and Utilization. The seminar aimed to adapt to the new requirements of geological work in the new era and fully leverage the basic, leading, and binding roles of water resources. It sought to promote the conservation of water resources, the protection and ecological restoration of water environments, and the conversion of the cutting edge theoretical research in geothermal technology into achievements; and the advancement of interdisciplinary development of hydrogeology, geothermal geology, and medical geology. The seminar featured an important speech by Wang Min, Vice Minister of the former Ministry of Land and Resources of the PRC, which is included below.

Regulation of vegetation pattern on the hydrodynamic processes of erosion on hillslope in Loess Plateau, China
Guo-Qiang Yu, Qian Wang, Li-Feng Zhu, Xia Zhang
2023, 11(1): 4-19. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280002
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As vegetation are closely related to soil erosion, hydrodynamic parameter changes under various vegetation pattern conditions can be used as an important basis for the research of the soil erosion mechanism. Through upstream water inflow experiments conducted on a loess hillslope, how the vegetation pattern influences the hydrodynamic processes of sediment transport was analyzed. The results show that the placement of a grass strip on the lower upslope can effectively reduce runoff erosion by 69%, relying on the efficiency of regulated hydrodynamic process. The effective location of grass strip for hillslope alleviating erosion is on the lower part of the upslope, mainly due to the grass strip measure used to regulate the hydrodynamic system. As a result, the underlying surface runoff resistance is increased by 5 times, runoff shear stress is decreased by more than 90%, and runoff power decreased by over 92%. The measure greatly separates the scouring energy of surface runoff that acts on the slope soil. Therefore, the use of grass strips effectively decreases the energy of runoff flowing along the slope, eliminating soil erosion to a great extent and thereby achieving a better regulation of hydrodynamic processe.
Research hotspots and trends of groundwater and ecology studies: Based on a bibliometric approach
Jun Liu, Yan-pei Cheng, Feng-e Zhang, Xue-ru Wen, Liu Yang
2023, 11(1): 20-36. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280003
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Groundwater, as a critical component of the hydrological cycle, is essential for sustainable ecosystem development. To clarify the current status of domestic and overseas research, and to identify hotspots, frontier and future trends of groundwater and ecology research, this study utilizes bibliometric methods and CiteSpace software to examine relevant published articles in the Web of Science (WOS) and CNKI databases from 1978 to 2022. Specifically, this study analyzes (1) the annual number of published papers; (2) research institutions; (3) keywords; and (4) evolution of research hotspots. The findings reveal that the United States, China, and Germany are the top three countries in groundwater and ecology research. International research hotspots mainly focus on microbial ecology, climate change, groundwater-surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone, biodiversity, and submarine groundwater discharge, while domestic research hotspots mainly focus on ecological water conveyance, ecological flow, groundwater development and utilization, groundwater pollution, and groundwater and ecological protection. Both domestic and international research hotspots exhibit interdisciplinary features with diverse research objects and assessment methods. Future research in this area is expected to focus on topics such as contamination, groundwater quality, framework, mechanism, spatial distribution, and dissolved organic matter. Additionally, the study of ecological recharge, ecological flow, ecological protection, water intake and use will continue to be the hot topics domestically.
Spatial-temporal difference between nitrate in groundwater and nitrogen in soil based on geostatistical analysis
Xiu-bo Sun, Chang-lai Guo, Jing Zhang, Jia-quan Sun, Jian Cui, Mao-hua Liu
2023, 11(1): 37-46. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280004
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The study of temporal and spatial variations of nitrate in groundwater under different soil nitrogen environments is helpful to the security of groundwater resources in agricultural areas. In this paper, based on 320 groups of soil and groundwater samples collected at the same time, geostatistical analysis and multiple regression analysis were comprehensively used to conduct the evaluation of nitrogen contents in both groundwater and soil. From May to August, as the nitrification of groundwater is dominant, the average concentration of nitrate nitrogen is 34.80 mg/L; The variation of soil ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen is moderate from May to July, and the variation coefficient decreased sharply and then increased in August. There is a high correlation between the nitrate nitrogen in groundwater and soil in July, and there is a high correlation between the nitrate nitrogen in groundwater and ammonium nitrogen in soil in August and nitrate nitrogen in soil in July. From May to August, the area of low groundwater nitrate nitrogen in 0–5 mg/L and 5–10 mg/L decreased from 10.97% to 0, and the proportion of high-value area (greater than 70 mg/L) increased from 21.19% to 27.29%. Nitrate nitrogen is the main factor affecting the quality of groundwater. The correlation analysis of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater, nitrate nitrogen in soil and ammonium nitrogen shows that they have a certain period of delay. The areas with high concentration of nitrate in groundwater are mainly concentrated in the western part of the study area, which has a high consistency with the high value areas of soil nitrate distribution from July to August, and a high difference with the spatial position of soil ammonia nitrogen distribution in August.
Determining safe yield and mapping water level zoning in groundwater resources of the Neishabour Plain
Parisa Kazerani, Ali Naghi Ziaei, Kamran Davari
2023, 11(1): 47-54. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280005
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Groundwater is a crucial sources of water supply, especially in arid and semi-arid areas around the world. With uncontrolled withdrawals and limited availability of these resources, it is essential to determine the safe yield of these valuable resources. The Hill method approach was used in this study to determine the safe yield the Neishabour aquifer in Khorasan Razvi province in Iran. The results showed that the safe yield in the Neishabour aquifer is 60% lower than the current pumping amounts during the study period, indicating that further overdrafts could result in the destruction of this aquifer. This highlights the importance of using the Hill method to estimate the permitted exploitation from other aquifers, thus preventing problems caused by over-extraction and maintaining stability of global groundwater levels.
Assessing the effectiveness of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles produced by green tea for Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater remediation
Hui Li, Zhan-tao Han, Qiang Deng, Chun-xiao Ma, Xiang-ke Kong
2023, 11(1): 55-67. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280006
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Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVI) produced by using green tea (GT) extract as a reductant can remove Cr(VI) from water effectively, which can be utilized in groundwater remediation. In order to define the reaction mechanism and removal effect in the aquifer, in this study, GT-NZVI particles were prepared and measured by some characterization methods to define their surface performance, and then batch and one-dimensional experiments were carried out to reveal the reaction properties of GT-NZVI and Cr(VI) in groundwater. The results showed that the prepared GT-NZVI particles were regular spherical with a diameter of 10–20 nm, which could disperse in water stably. The main component of GT-NZVI was α-Fe with superficial polyphenols as a stabilizer. GT-NZVI suspension had good ability to reduce the Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in water. When the concentration of GT-NZVI was 1 g/L, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L reached 92.8% in 1 h reaction. In column tests, GT-NZVI passed through the natural sand column successfully with an average outflow percentage of 71.2%. The simulated in-situ reaction zone (IRZ) with GT-NZVI was used to remediate Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater. The outflow concentration of Cr(VI) kept in 0.14–0.32 mg/L corresponding to the outflow rate below 0.32% within 15 days, and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by IRZ with GT-NZVI decreased with the increase of aquifer medium particle size, groundwater flow rate and ionic strength. Most of Cr(III) as reduzate was adsorbed or immobilized on the surface or in the lattice of GT-NZVI, which indicated effective immobilization for chromium.
Influence of underground space development mode on the groundwater flow field in Xiong’an new area
Yi-hang Gao, Jun-hui Shen, Lin Chen, Xiao Li, Shuang Jin, Zhen Ma, Qing-hua Meng
2023, 11(1): 68-80. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280007
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The degree and scale of underground space development are growing with the continuous advancement of urbanization in China. The lack of research on the change of the groundwater flow field before and after the development of underground space has led to various problems in the process of underground space development and operation. This paper took the key development zone of the Xiong’an New Area as the study area, and used the Groundwater modeling system software (GMS) to analyse the influence on the groundwater flow field under the point, line, and surface development modes. The main results showed that the underground space development would lead to the expansion and deepening of the cone of depression in the aquifer. The groundwater level on the upstream face of the underground structure would rise, while the water level on the downstream face would drop. The “line” concurrent development has the least impact on the groundwater flow field, and the maximum rise of water level on the upstream side of the underground structure is expected to be approximately 3.05 m. The “surface” development has the greatest impact on the groundwater flow field, and the maximum rise of water level is expected to be 7.17 m.
Effects of climate anomaly on rainfall, groundwater depth, and soil moisture on peatlands in South Sumatra, Indonesia
Muhammad Irfan, Sri Safrina, Erry Koriyanti, Netty Kurniawati, Khairul Saleh, Iskhaq Iskandar
2023, 11(1): 81-88. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280008
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Climate anomalies can cause natural disasters such as severe fires and floods on peatlands in South Sumatra. Factors that affect the natural disasters on peatlands include rainfall, groundwater level, and soil moisture. This paper aims to study the effect of the climate anomalies in 2019 and 2020 and effects of these influencing factors on peatlands in South Sumatra. The data used in this study was derived from in-situ measurement at two SESAME’s measurement stations in the study area. The results indicate that in the 2019 dry season, the rainfall was minimal, the lowest groundwater table depth was −1.14 m and the lowest soil moisture was 3.4%. In the 2020 dry season, rainfall was above the monthly average of 100 mm, the lowest groundwater level was −0.44 m, and the lowest soil moisture was 26.64%. There is also a strong correlation between soil moisture and groundwater table depth. The correlation between the two is stronger when there is less rainfall.
Response of runoff to climate change in the area of runoff yield in upstream Shiyang River Basin, Northwest China: A case study of the Xiying River
Shu-hong Song, Zhen-long Nie, Xin-xin Geng, Xue Shen, Zhe Wang, Pu-cheng Zhu
2023, 11(1): 89-96. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280009
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The objective of this study was to analyze the response of runoff in the area of runoff yield of the upstream Shiyang River basin to climate change and to promote sustainable development of regional water resources and ecological environment. As the biggest tributary of the Shiyang River, Xiying River is the only hydrological station (Jiutiaoling) that has provincial natural river and can achieve long time series monitoring data in the basin. The data obtained from this station is representative of natural conditions because it has little human activites. This study built a regression model through identifying the characteristics of runoff and climate change by using Mann-Kendall nonparametric statistical test, cumulative anomaly, and correlation analysis. The results show that the average annual runoff is 320.6 million m3/a with the coefficient of variation of 0.18 and shows slightly decrease during 1956–2020. It has a significant positive correlation the average annual precipitation (P<0.01). Runoff is sensitive to climate change, and the climate has becoming warm and wet and annual runoff has entering wet period from 2003. Compared to the earlier period (1955–2000), the increases of average annual temperature, precipitation and runoff in recent two decades were 15%, 9.3%, and 7.8%, respectively. Runoff in the Shiyang River is affected by temperature and precipitation among climate factors, and the simulation results of the runoff-climate response model (R = 0.0052P − 0.1589T + 2.373) indicate that higher temperature leads to a weakening of the ecological regulation of surface runoff in the flow-producing area.

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