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2017 Vol. 5, No. 2

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Influence of droughts on remote villages in the karst region of Guizhou Province, China: Causes and control
TANG Yi-qun, YANG Qi, ZHOU Jie
2017, 5(2): 91-103.
Abstract(680) PDF(540)
Even though the precipitation is abundant in the Karst region of Guizhou Province, remote villages in this area frequently suffer severe droughts. This paper studied the causes of droughts in this region through field investigation and references collection. Based on the cause analysis, some suggestions were provided for hazard prevention and control from an engineering perspective. Besides occasional extreme weathers, the drought in this area is primarily caused by its unique geological structures of Karst plateau and underdeveloped agricultural techniques. Meanwhile, the vicious cycle between drought and poverty, which causes the deficiency of water conservancy facilities and hazard prevention awareness, is an important reason for the frequent occurrence of agricultural and socioeconomic drought. Considering the social and economic conditions of remote villages, the long-term control of drought can only be realized if current measures are capable of bring immediate effects and benefits. Therefore, the construction of well-planned and designed water conservancy system based on each village’s natural and social conditions are the priority for current hazard prevention. Generally, the exploitation of subterranean river should be considered as the first choice to stabilize the water supply for remote villages. Meanwhile, the construction and improvement of micro water conservancy facilities, such as small water tank, small pond and so on, can effectively support the water providence during droughts as well.
Hydrogeology of the Ordos Basin, China
HOU Guang-cai, YIN Li-he, XU Dan-dan
2017, 5(2): 104-115.
Abstract(1092) PDF(606)
The Ordos Basin is located in the east of NW China that is composed of different aquifer systems. Karst groundwater is stored in the Carmbrian-Ordovician carbonates along the margins of the basin. Fissured-pore water is present in the Cretaceous strata in the central-western basin and pore water is stored in the overlying Quaternary deposits discontinuously. The main origin of groundwater in the basin is direct or indirect infiltration of precipitation. Groundwater flows from recharge areas to adjacent local discharge areas. Besides evaporation and abstraction, groundwater feeds springs and rivers, such as the Yellow River and its tributaries. According to the karst aquifer lithologic structure, the features of karst development and circulation, the karst aquifer is divided into three structural and circulation patterns. Based on the control of Cretaceous sedimentary environment, lithologic structure, lithofacies, and palaeogeographic characteristics, the Cretaceous system is divided into the northern desert simple plateau aquifer system and the southern loess plateau aquifer system. PACKER was used to obtain temperature, hydrogeochemical and isotope data at specific depths. Groundwater circulation is studied using hydrodynamic fields, temperature fields, isotopes, hydrogeochemical data and numerical simulations. According to the result, it is divided into local, intermediate and regional systems.
Application of bioremediation in oil contaminated soil
ZHANG Sheng, ZHANG Cui-yun, HE Ze, CHEN Li, YIN Mi-ying, NING Zhuo, SUN Zhen-hua, ZHEN Shi-jun, ZHANG Fa-wang
2017, 5(2): 116-123.
Abstract(599) PDF(1002)
The long-term oil exploitation in oil fields has led to pollution of surrounding soil, creating a serious ecological problem. In order to promote and improve the application of microbial remediation in oil contaminated soil, experiment is carried out in polluted area in Zhongyuan Oilfield. In the experiment, indigenous microorganisms and other physical and chemical methods are employed, ryegrass is grown, and environmental factors in soil are regulated to degrade the oil and treat the polluted soil. Results show that when the average oil content in the soil is about 523.08 mg/kg, 65 days’ remediation through plants and microorganisms could help bring the oil content down to 74.61 mg/kg, achieving a degradation rate of 85.74%; through salinity treatment, salt content in soil is reduced by 62.93-82.03% to 399-823 mg/kg from previous 2.22 g/kg. Through this experiment, the bioremediation method is improved and its effectiveness and feasibility are testified. The result has been applied in Zhongyuan Oilfield and has brought fair ecological and economic benefits, providing technical support to the treatment of contaminated soil of the same kind, and offering some insights to the treatment of soil contaminated by other organic pollutants.
Determination of organic carbon in soils and sediments in an automatic method
LI Guo-ao, YAN Lei, CHEN Zhen-he, LI Ye
2017, 5(2): 124-129.
Abstract(816) PDF(1582)
Our automatic digestion device is applied in determining the quantity of organic carbon in the soils/sediments. Its operation process is simple. The reaction conditions are optimized; the complex pretreatments are automated; and a great number of samples can be analyzed at the same time. Comparison shows that the experiment using the device is safer and easier. The correlation coefficiency is greater than 0.999, indicating a good linear relationship. The relative standard deviations of three different concentrations are less than 5%. Standard addition recoveries of high and low concentration range between 94.7% and 100% and between 91.7% and 105% respectively. Method determination limitation (MDL) of this method meets the practical requirements. The device in this paper supports a compositive SOC determination method. Its advantages include improved time and labor efficiency, and accuracy. The device is widely used in the studies of agricultural science, carbon cycle, climate change and environmental protection.
Analysis on hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in strongly exploited area in Hutuo River Plain
TIAN Xia, FEI Yu-hong, ZHANG Zhao-ji, LI Ya-song, DUN Yu, GUO Chun-yan
2017, 5(2): 130-139.
Abstract(494) PDF(462)
The Hutuo River alluvial-proluvial fan is located in North China Plain, and groundwater is the main source of water supply for agriculture and domestic water. Shijiazhuang depression funnels due to the long-term excessive exploitation are the bottleneck of the regional economic development. Analyzing the chemical characteristics of groundwater under the condition of strong human activities, can provide a scientific basis for further study of strong groundwater mining area environmental change. 143 groups of shallow groundwater samples are collected during the period of 2007-2008. In this paper, the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Hutuo River Plain area are analyzed systematically, using hydrogeochemical theory, combined with statistical methods and hydrochemical methods. Results are shown as follows: HCO3- and Ca2+ are major anion and cation. The variation coefficients of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3- between 0.25 and 0.52, which means small and stable relatively. The variation coefficient of are Na+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42- were large (0.89-1.01). They are sensitive and vulnerable to environmental change affect. Due to the impact of human activities, from the top to the edge of the alluvial-proluvial fan, the hydrochemical types of groundwater change from single to multiple, followed by HCO3-Ca?Mg, HCO3?SO4-Ca?Mg, HCO3?SO4?Cl-Ca?Mg, HCO3?Cl-Ca?Mg and other types.
Study on functions and rational allocation of Shule River Basin groundwater resources
CHENG Xu-xue, JIN Xiao-lin, LIU Wei-po
2017, 5(2): 140-151.
Abstract(605) PDF(949)
Based on Investigation and Assessment on Rational Exploitation and Utilization of Groundwater Resources in Typical Areas of the Hexi Corridor, the thesis studies on groundwater and environmental problems arising from the large-scale agricultural development projects in Shule River Basin. The thesis analyzes problems in exploiting and utilizing water resources, defines the function zoning of groundwater resources in key areas and evaluates them. Finally, the thesis uses three-dimensional unsteady flow simulation and regional social and economic development plan to study on the allocation of groundwater in Shule River Basin. A proposal for rational allocation of Shule River Basin water resources has been put forward.
Research review on the treatment of urban landscape lakes
LI Yue-peng, LIU Hai-yan, WANG Li-li
2017, 5(2): 152-161.
Abstract(564) PDF(876)
This paper summarizes the treatment experience of eutrophication by domestic and foreign scholars. At the same time, it summarizes the basic methods to govern lakes; Based on this, we advance the basic principles of urban landscape lakes: At first, we must fully investigate lake pollution source, evaluate its pollution ecological risk; Secondly we should put forward possible measures and choose the scheme for implementation, and finally complete the real-time dynamic monitoring, establish long-term supporting policies and treatment mechanism, to ensure that the pollution of lake continues to develop in the direction of health.
Risk assessment of heavy metals in topsoil along the banks of theYangtze River in Huangshi, China
LIN Dan, JIN Meng-gui, LI Xiu-juan
2017, 5(2): 162-172.
Abstract(545) PDF(914)
High concentrations of heavy metal in farmland threatens food production and human health. Our study assesses soil quality and the distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, to identify possible sources of heavy metals along the banks of the Yangtze River in Huangshi. Heavy metal concentrations of 22 topsoil samples were measured using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry instrument and data was analyzed by multivariate statistic approaches. Heavy metal contamination risk assessment was performed using a combination of the Nemerow multi-factor index method, the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method and the Muller index of geo-accumulation method. These methods determined similar results indicating that cadmium (Cd) poses a health risk to residents at the study site while Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni do not. The Nemerow multi-factor index method demonstrated that 18 samples were heavily polluted, three moderately polluted and one lightly polluted. The Muller index of geo-accumulation method found ten samples were moderately to strongly polluted by Cd, five were moderately polluted, six were lightly to moderately polluted and one was lightly polluted. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index method proved six samples were strongly polluted, seven were moderately polluted and nine were lightly polluted. Since our sampling sites were all in agricultural lands, we recommend the potential ecological risk index method as the most effective given it not only considers the range of pollutants contributing to soil pollution but factors in heavy metals toxicity. We are apt that the source of the high concentrations of Cd found in topsoil is derived from alluvial sediments upstream of the Yangtze River with a high percentage of residual speciation and a low percentage of exchangeable speciation distribution of Cd. This in turns indicates that a high concentration of Cd in soil had little impact on the natural environment. However, 31.9% of the iron-manganese oxides bound speciation indicating that such levels of Cd in soil would be potentially hazardous to the crops, particularly if exposed to a reductive condition.
Reconstruction of deep fluid chemical constituents for estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature using chemical geothermometers
LIU Yan-guang, LIU Bing, LU Chuan, ZHU Xi, WANG Gui-ling
2017, 5(2): 173-181.
Abstract(1044) PDF(1124)
This paper elaborates the chemical constituent change principles of deep geothermal fluid during the process of upward movement. It summarizes research methods of hydrochemistry, isotope and numerical modelling technique for the physiochemical processes such as decreasing temperature, shallow groundwater infusion, and degassing. The multi-component chemical geothermometry methods including gas geochemical method are discussed. High-temperature geothermal fields in China are mostly located in the southwest with frequent new tectonic movements, especially in Tibet high-temperature geothermal areas. Therefore the paper also focuses the status of high-temperature geothermal fluid research. At last, it’s pointed out in the paper that in the future we can start from typical high-temperature geothermal zones and geothermal fields to explore optimization of the multi-component geothermometry method and use it in the reconstruction and analogue of the formation mechanism and internal relevancy of regional geothermal systems.
Scale effects of eroded sediment transport in Wujiang River Basin, Guizhou Province, China
WANG Yao, HOU Li-sheng, CAI Yun-long
2017, 5(2): 182-192.
Abstract(549) PDF(1056)
In recent years, research on spatial scale and scale transformation of eroded sediment transport has become a forefront field in current soil erosion research, but there are very few studies on the scale effect problem in Karst regions of China. Here we quantitatively extracted five main factors influencing soil erosion, namely rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, vegetative cover and management, soil and water conservation, and slope length and steepness. Regression relations were built between these factors and also the sediment transport modulus and drainage area, so as to initially analyze and discuss scale effects on sediment transport in the Wujiang River Basin (WRB). The size and extent of soil erosion influencing factors in the WRB were gauged from: Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), precipitation data, land use, soil type and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) or Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and observed data from hydrometric stations. We find that scaling effects exist between the sediment transport modulus and the drainage area. Scaling effects are expressed after logarithmic transformation by a quadratic function regression relationship where the sediment transport modulus increases before decreasing, alongside changes in the drainage area. Among the five factors influencing soil erosion, slope length and steepness increases first and then decreases, alongside changes in the drainage area, and are the main factors determining the relationship between sediment transport modulus and drainage area. To eliminate the influence of scale effects on our results, we mapped the sediment yield modulus of the entire WRB, adopting a 1 000 km2 standard area with a smaller fitting error for all sub-basins, and using the common Kriging interpolation method.
Evaluation of groundwater potential and eco-geological environment quality in Sanjiang Plain of Heilongjiang Province
WU Ting-wen, WANG Li-huan, YANG Xiang-kui
2017, 5(2): 193-201.
Abstract(459) PDF(949)
Sanjiang Plain of Heilongjiang Province has become an important commodity grain base in our country after the construction of more than a century. Groundwater is the main water source for industrial and agricultural production and daily life in the area. With the large-scale development and construction in this area, there are a series of ecological and environmental geological problems, such as the reduction of groundwater resources, which seriously restricts the sustainable development of local agriculture and society as well as economy. Based on the characteristics of three-dimensional flowof groundwater in Sanjiang Plain, this paper adopts the simulation software Visual MODFLOW to evaluate groundwater exploitation potential. The results show that overall there is a certain exploitation potential of Sanjiang Plain groundwater but it is unevenly distributed, and overdraft phenomenon exists in seven farms such as Baoquanling and Chuangye. Based on analytic hierarchy process, the evaluation result of eco-geological environment quality in Sanjiang Plain shows that 94.5% of the region features good geological environment quality, medium stability and medium bearing capacity. The study can provide geological evidence for optimal?allocation?of?water resources, land planning and regulation, and the high and stable yield of the commodity grain base in Sanjiang Plain.
Impact of animal manure addition on the weathering of agricultural lime in acidic soils: The agent of carbonate weathering
SONG Chao, LIU Chang-li, ZHANG Yun, HOU Hong-bing
2017, 5(2): 202-212.
Abstract(656) PDF(2069)
Fertilization and aglime (agricultural lime) application, as important agricultural activities in acid soil, exert an influence on the fluxes of carbon both between and within ecosystems. Animal manure added to soil can elevate the soil CO2 and release organic acid due to microbial decomposition of the high organic matter content of animal manure. Additionally, the elevated CO2 can accelerate carbonate weathering in alkaline soil, such as lime soil. However, in acidic soil, it is unclear whether the chemical weathering of additive aglime can be quickened by the elevated CO2 due to animal manure addition. Thus, to ascertain the impact of animal manure addition on aglime weathering in acidic soil and to understand the weathering agent of aglime or underlying carbonate in the acidic soil profile, we established two contrasting profiles (control profile and manurial profile) in a cabbage-corn or capsicum-corn rotation in a field experiment site located in the HuaXi district of Guiyang, China, and buried carbonate rock tablets at different depths of soil profiles to calculate the dissolution rate of carbonate rock by monitoring the weights of the tablets. The results indicated that soil CO2 increased due to animal manure addition, but the rate of dissolution of the carbonate rock tablets was reduced, which was attributed to the increase in the pH in acidic soil after animal manure addition because the relationship between the dissolution rate of carbonate rock and soil pH indicated that the weathering rate of carbonate rock was controlled by pH and not by CO2 in acidic soil. Thus, the contribution of H+ ions (mainly exchangeable acid) in acid soil as a weathering agent to the weathering of underlying carbonate (and/or aglime) may lead to the overestimation of the CO2 consumption through chemical weathering at the regional/global scale using hydro-chemical methods.

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