Investigation of groundwater pollution has been carried out on multiple typical karst underground river systems in recent years in order to reveal the characteristics and mechanism of underground river pollution. Through the summary of the survey results, five characteristics of underground river pollution have been revealed, including directionality, weak hysteresis, easier for reversibility, linear and intermittent (or seasonal); combining with karst geomorphic types, pollution sources (primordial, secondary pollution and compound), pollution ways and pollution receptors, three basic pollution patterns of the underground river were depicted: Recharge area pollution, runoff area pollution and discharge area pollution. At the same time, the study discloses the reality of the underground river pollution is the three basic patterns and their subgenera in combination with super imposition on the space and time. And from the angle of the hydrogeological model, the study expounds the process of underground river pollution. Finally, the study gives naming rules of pollution pattern of the underground river and sets up PISAB method of pattern recognition. The results provide scientific basis for pollution repair and management of underground river in the southwest karst region.
The deformation and the drainage of the aquitard is the main concern in the North China Plain (NCP), and the water released from aquitard compaction may be a large portion of the exploited groundwater. The skeletal specific storage of aquitard is the element parameter to the drainage of aquitard, and the undisturbed core samples are the best choice for the measurement of the physical parameters. In this study, the consolidation test was employed to analyze the skeleton specific storage of the clay sample drilled from Hengshui City, and the contribution from the drainage of aquitard to the groundwater exploitation. The results suggest the consolidation test can be utilized to understand the skeletal specific storage of aquitard, which is about 3.92×10-4 m-1 in the Hengshui. The water-saturation content of the aquitard was less than 100%, and the amount of the drainage of the aquitard was about 69% of the volume of land subsidence. The water released from aquitard compaction was about 35% of the groundwater exploitation to the deep aquifers.
There are concerns about the safety issues of dump slope in the open-cast mining pit because of the risk of catastrophic destruction caused by slope failures that are related to several factors, such as atmospheric conditions (especially precipitation), vegetation and some others. The aim of this study is to investigate the hydrological regime in a dump slope and the influence of the saturation degree on the stability of dump slopes with consideration of precipitation and vegetation using the program of PCSiWaPro?. Based on the hydrological simulation conducted through PCSiWaPro?, the calculation of the Factor of Safety (Fs) in the dump slope using Geo-slope Software was improved with further consideration of soil-water weight in the unsaturated dump slope and the influence of water content on the variation of soil property parameters (e.g. cohesion).
This article discussed the benzoic acid activated carbons which have changed the types and content of acid oxygen-function groups on the surface of activated carbons and their effect on the adsorption for Hg0 in simulated flue gas at 140 ℃. These surface acid oxygen function groups were identified by Boehm titration, Fourier transformation infrared spectrum, temperature programmed desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It indicates that the carboxyl, lactone and phenolic were formed when the benzoic acid is loaded on the surface of activated carbons. Among the surface acid oxygen function groups, the carboxyl groups enhance the adsorption capacities of Hg0 for activated carbons to a greater extent.
The mountain rocks in the Dushan Complex are Sr-rich granite with a much higher Sr level than those in other crustal lithospheres in eastern China. That presents a high potential for developing Sr-rich mineral water. In this study, 6 groups of rock samples, together with 30 groups of water samples, were collected. Combining with the existing data, the Sr contents in three different types of underground water were obtained, which are the Quaternary pore water, the meshed bedrock fissure water in weathered zones and the tectonic bedrock fissure water. On the basis of preliminary understanding for the distribution characteristics of Sr-rich mineral water in the Dushan Mountain region, the causes for the Sr-rich mineral water were investigated. Our results showed that the Sr content of the rocks in the studied area ranges from 988 to 1 950 μg/g. In the horizontal direction, those in both the pore water and the meshed bedrock fissure water in weathered zones show high values in the west but low ones in the east, and high ones in the south but low ones in the north. Furthermore, both types of water meet the standard for Sr-rich mineral water in the western areas. In the vertical direction, the Sr content shows the lowest value in pore water (the average value is 0.707 mg/L), middle value in the meshed bedrock fissure water in weathered zones (the average value is 1.415 mg/L) and the highest value in the tectonic bedrock fissure water (the average value is 8.331 mg/L). It was thought that the widely-developed Sr-rich granite in this region provides physical sources for the formation of Sr-rich mineral water. The continuous dissolution of Sr during underground water runoff is the internal mechanism. In addition, the hydraulic interrelations may exist between the three vertical aquifers, leading a continuous accumulation of the Sr level during infiltration.
In order to simulate the recovery of groundwater funnels under the condition of reducing groundwater abstraction, hydrogeological conditions of recoverability construction of Shijiazhuang groundwater funnel were analyzed, and a numerical simulation method was used based on the change of various parameters. The results show that the groundwater flow model can accurately reflect groundwater hydrogeological characteristics, and can guarantee the reliability of groundwater restoration prediction. The research has set up four schemes for rural water-saving, planting structure adjustment, urban reducing abstraction and integrated method. The effect of four restoration schemes on the restoration of groundwater funnels was compared with water table variations of two observation well. Comparison results show that the level changes of plan Three and Four are different from the other two kinds of exploitation and the drop trend of water table in the funnel area is flat. So we can conclude that Plan Three and Four have significant effect on the groundwater funnel restoration of Shijiazhuang.
Taking a golf course as the object of investigation, this paper monitors the groundwater distribution of the course, uses the assessment method of groundwater quality and pollution status to evaluate the groundwater foundation of the course. The results show that shallow groundwater and deep groundwater are polluted to different degrees, and the pollution of shallow groundwater is very serious. In terms of distribution space, the monitoring well in the downstream direction of golf course is the most seriously polluted.
Zhoushan City in Zhejiang Province is the focus of China’s reclamation area, and it also has a great influence on the groundwater quality. Based on the observed data of groundwater level and chloride ion concentration, groundwater quality in the next 6 years in Zhoushan area is predicted and analyzed by using groundwater numerical simulation software GMS. According to the comparison of observed groundwater level and simulated groundwater level at the end time, it is found that the whole water level in the filling area has the small fluctuation, which is within the range of 1 m. And the highest concentration of chloride ion is in the eastern coastal area. The prediction results indicate that there is no obvious trend of sea water with high chloride ion concentration to land. Under the condition of the current groundwater utilization, the groundwater level in Donggang sea area of Zhoushan is stable, and the chloride ion concentration has a slight decrease trend.