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2021 Vol. 9, No. 2

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Sensitivity assessment of strontium isotope as indicator of polluted groundwater for hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids produced in the Dameigou Shale of Qaidam Basin
Zhao-xian Zheng, Xiao-shun Cui, Pu-cheng Zhu, Si-jia Guo
2021, 9(2): 93-101. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.001
Abstract(2924) FullText HTML (1286) PDF(172)
Hydrogeochemical processes that would occur in polluted groundwater and aquifer system, may reduce the sensitivity of Sr isotope being the indicator of hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) in groundwater. In this paper, the Dameigou shale gas field in the northern Qaidam Basin was taken as the study area, where the hydrogeochemical processes affecting Sr isotope was analysed. Then, the model for Sr isotope in HFFF-polluted groundwater was constructed to assess the sensitivity of Sr isotope as HFFF indicator. The results show that the dissolution can release little Sr to polluted groundwater and cannot affect the εSr (the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio) of polluted groundwater. In the meantime, cation exchange can considerably affect Sr composition in the polluted groundwater. The Sr with low εSr is constantly released to groundwater from the solid phase of aquifer media by cation exchange with pollution of Quaternary groundwater by the HFFF and it accounts for 4.6% and 11.0% of Sr in polluted groundwater when the HFFF flux reaches 10% and 30% of the polluted groundwater, respectively. However, the Sr from cation exchange has limited impact on Sr isotope in polluted groundwater. Addition of Sr from cation exchange would only cause a 0.2% and 1.2% decrease in εSr of the polluted groundwater when the HFFF flux reaches 10% and 30% of the polluted groundwater, respectively. These results demonstrate that hydrogeochemical processes have little effect on the sensitivity of Sr isotope being the HFFF indicator in groundwater of the study area. For the scenario of groundwater pollution by HFFF, when the HFFF accounts for 5% (in volume percentage) of the polluted groundwater, the HFFF can result in detectable shifts of εSr (ΔεSr=0.86) in natural groundwater. Therefore, after consideration of hydrogeochemical processes occurred in aquifer with input of the HFFF, Sr isotope is still a sensitive indicator of the Quaternary groundwater pollution by the HFFF produced in the Dameigou shale of Qaidam Basin.
Application assessment of GRACE and CHIRPS data in the Google Earth Engine to investigate their relation with groundwater resource changes (Northwestern region of Iran)
Afraz Mehdi, Eftekhari Mobin, Akbari Mohammad, Ali Haji Elyasi, Noghani Zahra
2021, 9(2): 102-113. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.002
Abstract(1897) FullText HTML (834) PDF(269)
In recent years, drought has become a global issue, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. It is without doubt that the identification and monitoring of the drought phenomenon can help to reduce the damages that would occur. In addition, rain is one of the factors which directly affect the water levels of underground water reservoirs. This research applied a linear gradient regression method developed on the basis of GRACE, CHIRPS, and data from monitoring wells to investigate the groundwater storage changes. These data have been analyzed on the Google Earth Engine platform. In order to conduct temporal and spatial analyses, the water levels of the aquifer were generated from the monitoring wells and zoned into five classes. Also, the amount of water storage and rain from the year 2003 to 2017 in the West Azerbaijan Province were investigated using the GRACE satellite and the CHIRPS data, respectively. The results obtained from the GRACE satellite data show that the average water level in the underground reservoirs in Iran had started to decrease since 2008 and reached its peak in 2016 with an average decrease of 16 cm in that year. The average annual decline of groundwater level in the studied time period was 5 cm. A chart developed from the CHIRPS annual rainfall data indicates that the biggest decline in rainfall occurred in 2008, and the declining trend has remained steady. Linear analyses were made on GRACE with CHIRPS results and monitoring wells data separately, from which the correlation coefficients are between 86% and 97%, showing generally high correlations. Furthermore, the results obtained from the zoning of the aquifer showed that in the period of 2004 to 2016, due to the decrease in rainfall and the excessive withdrawal of groundwater, the water levels also decreased.
Geothermal structure revealed by curie isothermal surface under Guangdong Province, China
Yu-fei Xi, Ya-bo Zhao, DA Yuen
2021, 9(2): 114-120. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.003
Abstract(778) FullText HTML (324) PDF(148)
Guangdong Province in Southeast China is noted for its numerous geothermal resources due to tectonic episodes, mainly occurred during the Cretaceous. The surface heat flow and geothermal gradient are the most direct ways to understand the temperature of the Earth. However, geothermal resources are poorly utilized in Guangdong Province due to limited numbers of boreholes and surficial hydrothermal fluids. To improve the understanding of underground temperature distribution in Guangdong Province, we have applied power-density spectral analysis to aeromagnetic anomaly data to calculate the depth of the Curie isothermal surface. Upward continuation is applied and tested to the magnetic data. The calculated Curie isotherm is between 18.5 km and 25 km below surface. The fluctuation in the depth range reflects lateral thermal perturbations in the Guangdong crust. In particular, the eastern, northern, western and coastline areas of the province have a relatively shallow Curie isotherm. By comparing the surface heat flow, geothermal gradient, distribution of Mesozoic granite-volcanic rocks, and natural hot springs, we conclude that during Mesozoic, magmatism exerted great influence on the deep thermal state of Guangdong Province. A shallow Curie isotherm surface, as well as numerous natural hot springs and high heat flow, show clear signatures of shallow heat sources.
Comparison on the phytoextraction efficiency of Bidens pilosa at heavy metal contaminated site in natural and electrokinetic conditions
Yue-nan Li, Yan-sheng Gu, Man-zhou Li, Guang-jie Huo, Xi-ping Wang, Zhi-jie Xu, Jie Yue, Dan Du, Man-ge Geng
2021, 9(2): 121-128. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.004
Abstract(643) FullText HTML (243) PDF(116)
The plant samples of Bidens pilosa were collected from a coal gangue vacant site and its surrounding area, located in central China, to study the remediation effect of the plant species on heavy metal (HM) contamination in both natural and electrokinetic (EK) conditions. The analytical results showed that the effect of phytoextraction and bioconcentration on the heavy metals in the sample of the EK group is more significant than those in the other control group. Compared with the results of natural condition, under the EK condition the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the stems and leaves of the Bidens pilosa increased to 0.40 mg/kg, 4.23 mg/kg, 7.27 mg/kg, 830.24 mg/kg, respectively, with their increments of 292%, 1731%, 141%, 2076%. For root samples, the Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations increased to 0.52 mg/kg, 4.36 mg/kg, 10.87 mg/kg, and 98.12 mg/kg and the increase rates were 1034%, 140%, 29%, and 181%, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the Bidens pilosa was significantly higher than that of control group. The removal efficiency of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soil increased to 26%, 72%, 27%, and 79% with the EK applied. In addition, the mechanism of HM migration, extraction and enrichment in Bidens pilosa under the EK condition was discussed.
Evaluation of shallow geothermal energy resources in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain based on land use
Ruo-xi Yuan, Gui-ling Wang, Feng Liu, Wei Zhang, Wan-li Wang, Sheng-wei Cao
2021, 9(2): 129-139. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.005
Abstract(797) FullText HTML (312) PDF(77)
To discover the characteristics, distribution and potential of shallow geothermal energy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain area. This paper, based on a large amount of data collection and field investigations, evaluateed the shallow-layer geothermal energy in the study area through the analytic hierarchy process and comprehensive index method. Based on suitability zoning results superimposed with 1:100000 land use data, the study area is divided into encouraged, controlled, restricted and prospective mining areas regarding the development of shallow geothermal energy, and the economic availability of shallow geothermal energy in the encouraged and controlled areas are evaluated. The results show that the shallow geothermal energy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain can meet the heating and cooling demand of 6×108 m2 of buildings, equivalent to 1.15×107 t of standard coal, thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 2.73×107 t and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 1.95×105 t. According to the development and utilization mode, the energy demand level and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development plan, the development and utilization of geothermal resources in the plain area has two types: Urban concentrated mining areas and rural scattered mining areas. The scale and level of intensive utilization of regional geothermal resources are of great significance.
Geochemical records of the sediments and their significance in Dongping Lake Area, the lower reach of Yellow River , North China
Lin-song Yu, Hong-bo Liu, Fang Wan, Zun-fang Hu, Huai-dong Luo, Xiu-wen Zhang
2021, 9(2): 140-151. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.006
Abstract(615) FullText HTML (207) PDF(34)
Dongping Lake area, located in the lower reaches of Yellow River, is an ideal place to study the changes of modern river and lake sedimentary environment. The sediment samples of Dawen River, Yellow River, and Dongping Lake were collected, and the major elements, trace elements and organic matter geochemical composition of the samples were analyzed. Cluster analysis, characteristic element ratio method and graphic method were used to explore the geochemical characteristics of sediments and their environmental implication. The results show that the contents of SiO2, Na2O, TiO2 and Zr in sediments of Dawen River and Yellow River are relatively high, and the contents of iron and manganese oxides, organic matter, CaO, P2O5 and Sr in lake sediments are relatively high. That reveals the differences of sedimentary environments between the rivers and the lake. The contents of Sr and Zr in Dawen River are affected by the rapid migration of clastic materials in the upstream carbonate source area during the flood season; the δCe, ΣREE and REE’s ratios in the sediments of the Yellow River reflect the influence of the Loess source; and the distribution of elements changes along the flow direction during the flood season. The characteristics of pH, element composition and LREE & HREE fractionation of the lake sediments indicate that the sediment source is complex, and the lake environment is affected by the flood season. The study shows that the geochemical content and its variation characteristics of sediments effectively reveal the sedimentary environment, material composition and characteristics of flood season of rivers and the lake in the study area.
Grain size characteristics and genesis of the Muxing loess in the Muling-Xingkai Plain, Northeast China
Zhong-shuang Cheng, Chen Su, Zhao-xian Zheng, Zhuang Li, Li-kang Wang, En-bao Wang
2021, 9(2): 152-160. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.007
Abstract(750) FullText HTML (301) PDF(49)
Thick loess is deposited on the platform in the piedmont zone of Muling-Xingkai Plain (Muxing Plain), but the genesis of the Muxing loess is still unclear. The aims of this study are to analyze the grain size characteristics of Muxing loess collected from the cores of a typical borehole (ZK1) in the piedmont zone of Muxing Plain, and to verify its genesis. The Muxing loess is mainly composed of the particles with diameter less than 50 μm, with an average content of 92.48%. The coarse silt particles with diameter of 10-50 μm are the basic composition of aeolian sediments, and their average content is 44.34% for the Muxing loess, which is the mode class among the particles with different diameters. The grain size parameters and frequency curves are similar to those of the typical aeolian sediments. The distribution characteristic of the Muxing loess in the C-M scatter diagram is consistent with that of the Xi Feng loess. In addition, the discriminant analysis shows the Muxing loess mostly consists of aeolian sediments. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Muxing loess mainly resulted from aeolian deposition based on the grain size characteristics. Muxing Plain is dominated by the monsoon climate, and the wind-blown dusts are gradually deposited after being transported over long distances.
Assessment of prediction performances of stochastic models: Monthly groundwater level prediction in Southern Italy
O Boulariah, PA Mikhailov, A Longobardi, AN Elizariev, SG Aksenov
2021, 9(2): 161-170. doi: 10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2021.02.008
Abstract(1107) FullText HTML (454) PDF(89)
Stochastic modelling of hydrological time series with insufficient length and data gaps is a serious challenge since these problems significantly affect the reliability of statistical models predicting and forecasting skills. In this paper, we proposed a method for searching the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model parameters to predict the behavior of groundwater time series affected by the issues mentioned. Based on the analysis of statistical indices, 8 stations among 44 available within the Campania region (Italy) have been selected as the highest quality measurements. Different SARIMA models, with different autoregressive, moving average and differentiation orders had been used. By reviewing the criteria used to determine the consistency and goodness-of-fit of the model, it is revealed that the model with specific combination of parameters, SARIMA (0,1,3) (0,1,2) 12, has a high R2 value, larger than 92%, for each of the 8 selected stations. The same model has also good performances for what concern the forecasting skills, with an average NSE of about 96%. Therefore, this study has the potential to provide a new horizon for the simulation and reconstruction of groundwater time series within the investigated area.

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