Abstract: The continued sustainable economic development of china depends in part, to the scientific management of China’s precious groundwater resources in the coming years. Groundwater resource scarcity is a common underlying problem across China, in addition, the large-scale groundwater exploitation for human consumption over recent decades has resulted in a series of environmental geological problems. As a result of these problems, the national economics in china have been seriously affected. In order to prevent groundwater resource exhaustion and environmental geology deterioration, “accurate control of groundwater resources (ACGR)” theory and its support system were established in this article, and the related prevention measures of the ACGR theory, such as accurate irrigation, accurate supply water, and accurate subsidies, were proposed. This paper highlights the ACGR theory as an efficient and essential way to achieve the sustainable groundwater resource management, which can be applied to countries such as China.
Abstract: The Selenge River Basin occupies a total area of 447,000 km2, of which 343,000 km2 is located within Mongolia (the remainder is in Russia). The basin is characterized by an extreme continental climate, consisting of harsh, cold, dry winters and short, hot summers. Annual average temperatures are approximately -4°C and annual rainfall ranges from 220 mm to 450 mm.The Selenge River Basin is a critical groundwater resource for Mongolia. Greater than 55% (~1.5 million) of Mongolia’s population resides within the basin and, during 2003, an estimated average of 700,000 m3/day of water was abstracted from the basin’s groundwater system. The basin services Mongolia’s largest cities and industries (including the rapidly expanding mining sector) as well as important traditional pastoral ranges.
Fresh water supplied are often limited in mainland China, reducing agricultural productivity. However the use of straw mulch is the main management technique for agronomic water saving. This paper investigates the movement of soil water under straw mulch compared to a non-mulch test plot. Results demonstrated that straw mulch effected soil water movement primarily during drought periods and throughout shallow soil (i.e. depths of less than 200cm). The soil moisture and soil water potential at the mulch test plot in drought period are both higher than that of contrast test plot, and along with increasing soil depth, the straw mulch effect weakens. When evaporation is dominated by surface evaporation, straw mulch will effectively restrict the evaporation of soil water; when evaporation dominated by vegetation transpiration, the straw mulch promotes the transpiration of vegetation. In drought periods, straw mulch is not effective for deep soil water infiltration, but is advantageous for soil water utilization of mid- and shallow-soils (0-120cm), however the infiltration speed rate of straw mulch point during high water period is higher than that of contrast plot. This paper highlights the importantance of good management practices of agricultural land in order to limit soil water loesses, which is essential when water is such a limited resource.
Abstract: A three-dimension flow model based on the hydrogeological conditions within the influent zone of the Yellow River in Henan Province, Yuanyang, China, was set up using FEFLOW. The interaction of the Yellow River and the groundwater was simulated under various pumping scenarios. For the planned water supply area, simulation results indicate that, within 10 years’ pumping at a rate of 4.86′108m3/a, the shallow groundwater flow and infiltration from Yellow River will be stabilized . After 10 years pumping, the infiltration will increase to 3.22′108m3/a ?and take approximately 70% of the pumping water.
Abstract: Groundwater quality is of vital importance in groundwater safety especially for the purpose of water supply, its management becomes more and more necessary as groundwater contamination has threaten its safe use in China. The article analyzed the contamination sources of groundwater and impact of contamination on human health and water supply, the knowledge gaps were pointed and recommendations were made for groundwater quality management in China.
A much improved understanding of how farmyard manure application may affect carbonate rock dissolution is needed in order to predict possible feedbacks between the rock carbon cycle and the global climate system. Two carbonate mineral rock tablets; dolomite and limestone were buried at six depths between 0 and 110 cm in a soil typical of the subtropical karst area in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province. The extent of tablet dissolution, soil CO2, soil pH, soil water content, soil mineral and chemical composition, and chemical composition of soil water were tested in order to assess the degree of dissolution under manure application over the course of one year. The results show that manure addition decreases the dissolution rate of carbonate rocks; limestone and dolomite by between 11.7%-116.9% and 25.0%-65.69% respectively, with the dissolution rate of limestone consistently exceeding that of dolomite under the same conditions. Our data indicates that the rate of pedogenesis of the dolomite and limestone rocks is decreased as much as 35.77% and 59.41% respectively, as a result of manure application. Moreover, the results suggest that manure application accelerated the generation of soil CO2, with soil CO2 concentration increasing on average by 93.94%, and the CO2 flux increasing by 67.64% compared with the control profile. Finally, the data also indicates that manure decreases CO2 uptake by dissolution of carbonate rocks by 25.50%-39.45% on a Guiyang city scale. The counteraction of the CO2 sink contributed by karst water due to farmyard manure utilization in general karst area (both dolomite and limestone) however was 59.41%-62.72%, indicating the application of manure successfully reduces both dissolution and CO2 release to the atmosphere.
Abstract: Three brine migration models in underground waters were compared to solve the problem of high-density brine migration in underground fresh waters. As shown by the example of brine occurrence in salt dumps, it is preferable to use the model of variable-density solution migration for real layered hydrogeological systems.
Abstract: The risk of groundwater contamination following the infiltration of waste surface water, is of great interest, particularly in areas experiencing water shortage. In this study, the distribution characteristics of contaminants along the Cihe River, in the piedimont plain of the Taihang Mountains, China, was investigated by measuring the soil and water samples. The main organic contaminants detected in different media include hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. The main contaminants found in different media are mostly derived from the river water, which can be seen from the results of waste water from the river and groundwater, from the soil samples from different depth and distance of the profiles along the river. The distribution characteristics showed that there has been a natural attenuation of the contaminants from the river during their transportation through the soils and groundwater. The sorption of organic compounds to soil organic matter is thought to be a main mechanism of natural attenuation.
Abstract: The intention of this work is to consider the stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and deuterium in rainfall, surface water and groundwater along the Yellow River in the North China Plain (NCP). This demonstrated that the δ18O values in groundwater varied from –10.17 to –6.85‰, with mean value of –8.76‰, and that the δD ranged from –68.7 to –58.0‰, with mean value of –63.4‰, respectively. The δ18O values in surface water varied from –8.36 to 1.32‰, with mean value of –6.8‰, and δD ranged from –64.4 to –35.1‰, with mean value of –57.6‰, respectively. Further, The range of Cl- values of groundwater varied from 5.9 to 340.5 mg/L and that values ranged from 30.1 to 81.9 mg/L in surface water samples and Na+ value changed from 27.4 to 321 mg/L in groundwater, while that in surface water varied from 24.8 to 50.5 mg/L. Most of the points fall below the GMWL?, but are close to the LMWL.? Therefore the results indicated that the groundwaters along the Yellow River were influenced by rainfall in heavy events and surface water.
Abstract: GIS and RS techniques have been applied to interpret satellite data in 1992, 2000 and 2010. Further, the ecological environment factors of these three periods and the data for various types of land use have been obtained. LUDI in the Amur River Basin from 1992 to 2010 has been quantitatively analyzed by using the land use dynamic (LUDI) model and of land use transfer matrix model. The results indicated that from 1992 to 2010 the LUDI of land desertification is greatest, and is the most dramatic change. The comprehensive land use dynamic in the study area is 15.25, hence the land type is characterized by rapid change. In addition the area of woodland and farmland continues to increase, which has been mainly transformed from the mixture of forestland and grassland, marsh and wetland, this is an outcome of the production of shelter-forest plantation in North China, Northeast China and Northwest China. In the ten years period of the study, the area of desertified land has increased, changing mainly from a mixture of woodland and grassland. This study can rovide data for eco-geological environment management.
Groundwater is a valuable resource in many areas, and commonly plays a key role in economic development. Therefore, groundwater circulation rates at different depths are key issues for groundwater development and management in the Ordos Plateau. In this study, a particle tracking method was used to quantify circulation rates in the Ordos plateau. The results show that groundwater mainly circulates in shallow groundwater systems up to 400m depth. The results of this study can be used to develop effective programs for groundwater management and development.
Abstract: The problem of Arsenic source in groundwater has yet been addressed thoroughly. From the results of the analysis of samples, this article gives the statement that the Arsenic in groundwater of Quaternary sediments in Hanoi has mainly natural source, with the impact of man-made factors (industrial waste water, use of crop protection products, etc.). The article also explains the formation of Arsenic in groundwater in Hanoi area is closely related to the reduction by two main mechanisms, reducing mechanism of oxyhydroxit (Fe3 + OHAs) As liberation by microorganisms and reducing mechanism of As adsorbed on iron oxide or oxyhydroxit replaced by bicarbonate. The process of oxidation of minerals containing As is needed to be researched more.