Abstract: Although the Chinese people have, through continuous efforts, built the constantly improving Yellow River flood control system, and created a miracle which has been tranquil for over 50 years, the tendency for the downstream watercourse of the Yellow River to uplift every year has not been fundamentally curbed, and the aboveground river is still the “scourge” of the sons and daughters of the Yellow River. By the use of a variety of modern investigation and survey methods, the geological environment characteristics of the downstream of the Yellow River have been identified basically, including the environmental and geological factors affecting the stability of aboveground rivercourse of the lower Yellow River such as the active fracture of the lower Yellow River, crustal uplift, land subsidence, seismic activity, geological conditions of dike foundation engineering, hydrodynamic conditions of rivers, and geomorphology of watercourses. After a comprehensive analysis of the inability mode of aboveground river on the downstream of the Yellow River and its corresponding impact factors, by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, we have evaluated the crustal stability of the aboveground river, dike foundation stability, watercourse landform stability and overall stability. The results of comprehensive results show that the stability of downstream aboveground rivercourse of the Yellow River can be divided into four grades and 11 sections, i e. “basically stable, unstable, very unstable and extremely unstable”. On the basis of the stability segmentation, we consider the influence of integrally the future structural faults, earthquakes, the difference of watercourse between forward and backward heights of dikes, river regime and river type, historical crevasses, foundation soil liquefaction and seepage deformation, and find out 17 most unstable danger points. Finally, from 17 danger points, we select 7 danger points which are most prone to instability including Wuzhi, Zhongmou, Kaifeng, Fengqiu, Dongming, Changyuan and Dong’e. The calculation and analysis of the range and area inundated by 7 danger points, area, and number of people threatened, possible economic loss, and environmental damage, the inability caused by any one of 7 points could bring disastrous consequences to the downstream.
Abstract: Geological storage of CO2 (known as geological sequestration) is increasingly seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. China has become one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the world. Therefore, alongside other emissions reductions measures, the deployment of geological storage projects to capture CO2 in China is essential. This paper focuses on the establishment of qualitative and quantitative assessment methods for site-scale suitability of CO2 geological storage in deep saline formation systems. This is based on numerical modelling prior to the development a specific geological storage project, providing a more accurate selection of preferential sites from a list of potential storage locations. However, the detailed design of specific geological storage projects was not con?sidered.
Abstract: Sanjiang Plain-Amur River Basin aquifer is the aquifer shared by China and Russia, which is of great significance to water sources management for both countries, acting as a focused area by China and Russia. In this paper, the hydrogeological characteristics of the Sanjiang Plain-Amur River Basin is studied, aiming at understanding the differences as well as similarities of aquifer classification, chemical characteristics of groundwater, quantity of groundwater and groundwater evaluation methods of two countries, which will lay a solid foundation to further holistic study of the trans-boundary aquifer in the Sanjiang Plain-Amur River Basin.
Abstract: The paper presents some methods of numerical modelling and a study of moisture changing in frozen clay soils considering rates of freezing in the foundation. An impact assessment of moisture changes in clay soils affecting strength characteristics during thawing was carried out in stability tests.
Abstract: Petroleum pollution has become an important factor to threaten the groundwater environment, and the classification of its typical characteristics will contribute to pollution assessment and environmental management. Under the same hydrogeological features con?dition, the reaction of typical petroleum pollutants in groundwater depends on the charac?teristics. This paper takes the typical toxicity, oil pollutant migration, degradation, water-soluble etc. as evaluation indexes, and with AHP method the typical petroleum pollut?ants in groundwater are divided into four classifications according to comprehensive calculated values: comprehensive value≥2.5, Class I hazardous pollutant; 2.0≤comprehensive value＜2.5, Class II hazardous pollutant; 1.5≤comprehensive value＜2.0, Class III hazardous po?llutant; comprehensive value＜1.5, Class IV hazardous pollutant. The pollutant group shall be managed according to the classification, and obtained classification list will provide technical support for priority monitoring and priority repair of groundwater environmental management.
Abstract: A method for the detection of bromate and bromide in drinking water by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) was developed. The optimized conditions of IC including pH and concentration of the effluent were studied. The results showed that the above two species of bromine were baseline separated within nine minutes under the optimized conditions. The detection limits (S/N=3) of bromate and bromide were 0.23 and 0.12 μg/L, respectively. The RSD (n=6) of the peak areas was 1.2%-3.5%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of the type bromide in drinking water samples. The recoveries were 95%-109%. The method can be used for the regular analysis of bromate and bromide in real drinking water samples.
Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of some water construction in different phases on groundwater environment from several aspects, puts forward reasonable evaluation of groundwater development, and at the same time lists the problems that may arise in environmental hydrogeology. The above analysis and recommendations will have certain reference function to the reasonable development and utilization of groundwater in water construction.
Abstract: Groundwater is the main source of water supply for Beijing. Through analysis of the water resources in Beijing from 1980s up to now, this paper finds the major problems in the exploitation and utilization of groundwater in Beijing lie in the over-exploitation and pollution in groundwater, which are primarily caused by the rapid growth of population, enduring imbalance between exploitation and replenishing of groundwater and the contamination of groundwater. Thus based on this, this paper puts forward proposals and opinions to exploit groundwater in a scientific and moderate way, and to comprehensively protect the ground?water resources and environment in Beijing.
Abstract: Based on the Virtual Water Theory, the research analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of major crops in China. Analysis results indicate that the unit virtual water content varies with the type of crop obviously as well as the distribution region. We also found irrational water utilization in some regions, which means that the renewable water sources could not meet the water demand for crop growth. With a view solving these problems found in the research, discussions on agricultural water-saving technology, comprehensive allocation of crops, selection of rational cropping pattern, full use of green water and trade of virtual water were carried out, which may result in some theoretical basis for the sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources in China.
Abstract: In order to prevent the catastrophic events such as extreme drought, continuous drought and source-water quality pollution, 15 groundwater emergency water sources are to be selected in 11 important cities in Hebei, and the evaluation of allowable emergency exploitation quantity is 180.19×104 m3/d. Under the current conditions, the water supply quantity of emergency water sources and the total emergency water supply quantity will meet the emergency water demand with the guarantee rate of 65.79% to 377.78% and 90.35% to 270.51% respectively. By 2020, the water supply quantity of emergency water source places and the total emergency water supply quantity will meet the emergency water demand with the guarantee rate of 22.08% to 74.49% and 82.65% to 144.08% in the benefited areas of South-to-North water diversion (SNWDP); and for non-SNWDP areas, the guarantee rate will be 74.64% to 337.78% and 74.64% to 377.78%.
In this research, we laid a Hangjinhou Banner-Linhe District drilling transect along western piedmont of Hetao Basin to the modern Yellow River, which passes through the Langshan Mountain piedmont alluvial-proluvial fan, the Yellow River paleochannel, alluvial-fluvial plain of the Yellow River and the modern Yellow River flood plain successively and based on which we collected sedimentary samples of different geomorphic units. Based on hydrogeology and sedimentology and by means of stratum tracing and transects comparison, the analysis result comes out that the arsenic (As) sediments in Hetao Basin is distributed in obvious zoning form and is closely related to the sedimentary environment. The paleochannel zone in northern Basin has the highest content of As sediments, average content reaching 12.24 μg/g. In the horizontal direction of the profile, the distribution regularity of As is consistent to that of elements like Mn, Fe, Al and TOC, since they have experienced the same geochemical process in sediments. In the vertical direction, the high-arsenic sediments are mainly formed of grey black silty-fine sand layers or interbedding layers of silty-fine sand and muddy clay, rich in organic matter. The sedimentary environments are mainly shallow lakes and depressions, where the content of As is related to that of elements like Sb, Mn, B, V, etc., and particularly has significant relation with Fe.
Abstract: In recent years, the mountain springs in the bedrock mountainous area of Hebei are decreasing in terms of both quantity and flow rate, which have affected the domestic water and production water supply for people in this area, due to which driven wells have been built with the expectation to relieve the problem. However, this work doesn’t achieve much success due to the complex geological conditions in the bedrock mountainous area and tends to cause huge economic losses. In order to improve the success rate of this work, the authors of this paper made a summary about the type of reservoir structure, water storage conditions and characteristics, by drawing experience from the former practices of digging wells in the mountainous area of Hebei to search for water to relieve drought in 2011, referring to the research results about bedrock summarized by former researchers, employing the reservoir structure theory and by considering the stratum condition of the bedrock mountain area of Hebei. Based on the summary, the authors figure out the major reservoir structure and water research methods for mountainous regions where have metamorphic rocks, carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks distributed, which may offer some valuable guidance to future water researches in the bedrock mountainous area of Hebei