• ISSN 2305-7068
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2015 Vol. 3, No. 4

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Groundwater modelling to help diagnose contamination problems
ZHANG Chuan-mian, GUO Xiao-niu, Richard Henry, James Dendy
2015, 3(4): 285-294.
Abstract(713) PDF(1984)
Aquifer remediation for a contaminated site is complex, expensive, and long-term. Groundwater modelling is often used as a tool to evaluate remedial alternatives and to design a groundwater remediation system. Groundwater modelling can also be used as a useful process to identify aquifer characteristics and contaminant behaviour that are not realized prior to modelling, to help diagnose what happened and why it happened at contaminant sites. Three real-world modelling cases are presented to demonstrate how groundwater modelling is applied to help understand contamination problems and how valuable the improved understanding is to decision-making and/or to remedial design.
Groundwater level monitoring-importance global groundwater monitoring network
Ramasamy Jayakumar
2015, 3(4): 295-305.
Abstract(880) PDF(1883)
The paper illustrates the concept, methodology, essential components and importance of groundwater level monitoring in terms of various aquifers such as multiple aquifer, karst aquifer and other aquifers. The groundwater resources in Mekong countries including Cambodia, Laos PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam have also been reviewed. Finally, the author briefly presents Global Groundwater Monitoring Network
Quality evaluation of groundwater in the North China Plain
FEI Yu-hong, ZHANG Zhao-ji, LI Ya-song, GUO Chun-yan, TIAN Xia
2015, 3(4): 306-315.
Abstract(624) PDF(1708)
This paper presents a method combining single-indicator comprehensive evaluation and influence factor identification to measure groundwater quality. This method not only reflects groundwater quality classification with clear physical significance, but also divides the possibilities of man-made pollution in regional groundwater. The paper selects 6 063 representative groundwater wells in the North China Plain to evaluate 49 groundwater inorganic and organic index and comes to a conclusion: Controlled by geological environment and hydrogeological conditions, the groundwater quality in the North China Plain deteriorates from the bottom of maintain to coastal area, with Class I to III groundwater decreasing from 49% to 3.9% while Class V groundwater increasing from 21% to 86.9%; the quality of deep groundwater is better than that of shallow groundwater; the contribution rate of manganese, total hardness, total dissolved solids and iodide in shallow groundwater to over-III type water exceeds 50%; the contribution rate of nitrite in pollution index reaches 20%; while heavy metal and organic indexes have limited impact on regional groundwater quality. The North China Plain is an important economic area in China. Over decades, it has witnessed intense human activities, and water resource quantity demanded has been far greater than quantity supplied. Due to scarce surface water resource, groundwater becomes the pillar supporting regional economic development. This has led to increasing groundwater exploitation and development. According to statistics, the exploitation degree of shallow groundwater reaches 105% in the North China Plain and 118% in the Hebei Plain; the exploitation degree of deep groundwater reaches 143% in the North China Plain and 163% in the Hebei Plain. The serious over-exploitation of groundwater brings various geological environmental problems, with the worsening of groundwater quality being a typical one. Besides impact brought by human activities, the poor quality of natural water in the North China Plain is also an important factor. Therefore, to understand the current regional groundwater quality situation and to master influence factors and influence degree can provide reliable scientific protection for regional economic development.
Numerical simulation of karst groundwater system for discharge prediction and protection design of spring in Fangshan District, Beijing
WEI Jia-hua, CHU Hai-bo, WANG Rong, JIANG Yuan
2015, 3(4): 316-330.
Abstract(486) PDF(1959)
As the rapid growth of population and social economy, the situation of water resources shortage in Beijing city becomes more and more serious. Karst groundwater in Beijing has great potential for development. The reasonable exploitation of karst groundwater can enhance the water-supply stability of Beijing city. Firstly, the distribution of springs has been investigated in Fangshan, Beijing, and the characteristics of these springs have also been analyzed. Secondly, the hydrogeological conceptual model has been built, based on this, the groundwater flow numerical simulation model was established, and the parameter identification and validation of the model were performed under groundwater level and spring discharge. The results shows that the simulated values of groundwater level and spring discharge are very close to measured values, and the model can be used for groundwater resources evaluation and spring discharge prediction. Finally, a reasonable exploitation design has been developed with three exploitation scenarios considering the spring discharge protection; meanwhile, the quantity of groundwater resources was evaluated in the karst aquifer. The simulation results indicate that different exploitation yields have a significant impact on spring discharge; and the effective measures should be taken to protect the spring discharge
Study on the characteristics and causes of carbon tetrachloride pollution of karst water in eastern suburbs of Jinan
YANG Li-zhi, LIU Chun-hua
2015, 3(4): 331-341.
Abstract(361) PDF(681)
By comparing the testing data of the hydrochemistry components and organic pollution of karst water sample in Jinan with large amount of historical data, the author finds the long-existing problem of carbon tetrachloride pollution and the great change of hydrochemical characteristics of karst water in eastern suburbs of Jinan. Since karst water is the main water-supply source in eastern suburbs of Jinan, these problems have greatly affected the safety of water supply. Based on the analysis of hydrogeological condition in eastern suburbs of Jinan, this thesis discusses the causes of carbon tetrachloride pollution and hydrochemical variation with hydrogeochemical theories so as to protect the precious karst groundwater and Jinan spring water. It is found that through research and analysis that there are mainly two causes of carbon tetrachloride pollution and hydrochemical variation: the vulnerability of karst water in this area; the other being the serious pollution in this area caused by remaining pollution sources of the last century.
Forecasting of water yield of deep-buried iron mine in Yanzhou, Shandong
WANG Ye, ZHANG Qiu-lan, WANG Shi-chang, SHAO Jing-li
2015, 3(4): 342-350.
Abstract(329) PDF(1132)
This paper compares analytical and numerical methods by taking the forecasting of water yield of deep-buried iron mine in Yanzhou, Shandong as an example. Regarding the analytical method, the equation of infinite and bilateral water inflow boundary is used to forecast the water yield, and in the case of numerical simulation, we employed the GMS software to establish a model and further to forecast the water yield. On the one hand, through applying the analytical method, the maximum water yield of mine 1 500 m deep below the surface was calculated to be 13 645.17 m3/d; on the other hand, through adopting the numerical method, we obtained the predicted result of 3 816.16 m3/d. Meanwhile, by using the boundary generalization in the above-mentioned two methods, and through a comparative analysis of the actual hydro-geological conditions in this deep-buried mine, which also concerns the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods respectively, this paper draws the conclusion that the analytical method is only applicable in ideal conditions, but numerical method is eligible to be used in complex hydro-geological conditions. Therefore, it is more applicable to employ the numerical method to forecast water yield of deep-buried iron mine in Yanzhou, Shandong
Numerical modeling of water yield of mine in Yangzhuang Iron Mine, Anhui Province of China
YANG Yun, WU Jian-feng, LIU De-peng
2015, 3(4): 352-362.
Abstract(391) PDF(1203)
This study develops a three-dimensional heterogeneous numerical model to simulate the water inrush process and predict the water yield for mineral exploration in Yangzhuang Iron Mine in Anhui Province. To identify the hydrogeological parameters of the aquifer in the study area, the model was calibrated and validated using the observed heads through the integrated trial-and-error and automated techniques. Also, the sensitivity analysis of the model was performed to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the calibrated model. According to the mine construction plan at different mining levels of -500 m, -600 m, and -700 m, the calibrated model was then applied to predict the water yields dependent on the different mining levels. As indicated by the prediction results, the numerical simulation model can systematically describe the groundwater system in the mining area and determine the source of water inrush in this iron mine. In conclusion, numerical analyses carried out in this study can provide guidance to decision-makers in balancing the iron ore mining and mine dewatering in the future.
Analysis of travel time, sources of water and well protection zones with groundwater models
ZHOU Yang-xiao, Parvez Sarwer Hossain, Nico van der Moot
2015, 3(4): 363-374.
Abstract(550) PDF(542)
This study compares numerical models with analytical solutions in computing travel times and radius of protection zones for a pumping well located in an unconfined aquifer with uniform recharge and in a semi-confined aquifer. Numerical models were capable of delineating protection zones using particle tracking method in both cases. However, protection zones defined by travel time criterion can only protect small percent of source water to the well; large percent of source water is not protected which may pose a risk of pollution of source water to the well. The case study of Leggeloo well field in the Netherlands indicates that although a well field protection area was enforced in 1980s, elevated nitrate concentration has been monitored in the abstracted water since 1990s. The analysis of protection areas shows that the current protection area only protects 37.4% of recharge water to the well field. A large protection area must be adopted in order to safeguard the sustainable water supply for the local community

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