Abstract: Groundwater is an important and readily available source of fresh water in the Mekong-Lancang River Basin. With a rapid population growth and increasing human activities, an increasing number of countries in the Mekong-Lancang River Basin are experiencing depleted and degraded groundwater supplies. In transboundary river basins, such as the Mekong-Lancang River, prioritizing the use of the shared aquifer by one riparian government may affect the opportunities of other riparian governments and lead to potential water conflicts between neighboring countries. To promote the sharing of strategies and information for the sustainable and equitable use of water resources of the shared basin, international collaborative workshops on groundwater resources have been organized for all Mekong-Lancang River countries. These workshops provide an opportunity to communicate and discuss nationally sensitive issues on groundwater by the associated countries, with topics covering multiple aspects of groundwater, such as the groundwater status in the basin, quality issues, water use conflicts, hydrological information gaps, management policies and capacity building for successful water resource management. Consensus has been reached by all countries on the importance of catchment-based groundwater management and the need for close communication among the countries. Strategies for managing transboundary aquifer issues must foster international collaboration based on the regional network, influence national networks and enhance the capacity to building maps and monitoring systems based on associated databases. The sustainability of water resources cannot be achieved without the integrated involvement and contributions by multiple countries and various stakeholders. Therefore, collaborative workshops provide a great opportunity to further our understanding of the hydrologic processes of the Mekong River Basin, share the benefits of the aquifer and provide a strategy and vision for sustainable water resource management in the Mekong-Lancang River countries.
Abstract: Changes in the climatic system introduce uncertainties in the supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase of 2 to 4 °C over the next 100 years. Temperature increases will impact the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing the evaporation of surface water sources. Consequently, changes in precipitation will indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e., lakes, soil moisture, groundwater, etc.). In addition, increases in temperature contribute to increases in the sea level, which may lead to sea water intrusions, water quality deterioration, potable water shortages, etc. Climate change has direct impacts on the surface water and the control of storage in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, which indirectly controls the groundwater recharge process. The main and direct impact of climate change on groundwater is changes in the volume and distribution of groundwater recharge. The impact of climate change on groundwater resources requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and accurate estimations of groundwater recharge. A number of Global Climate Models (GCMs) are available for understanding climate and projecting climate change. These GCMs can be downscaled to a basin scale, and when they are coupled with relevant hydrological models, the output of these coupled models can be used to quantify the groundwater recharge, which will facilitate the adoption of appropriate adaptation strategies under the impact of climate change.
Abstract: Climate change has become a major global concern and threatens the security of natural environmental resources, including groundwater, especially for Cambodia. In this study, literature reviews related to climate change and groundwater resources in Cambodia were evaluated to address the impact of climate change on the groundwater environment. In Cambodia, global climate change will likely affect available water resources by driving changes in the groundwater recharge and usage pattern. Despite a general increase in the mean annual rainfall, a reduction in rainfall is anticipated during the dry season, which could lead to shortages of fresh water during the dry season. The impact of climate change on water resource environments can significantly affect national economic development. Thus, strategic management plansfor groundwater in response to climate change should be established to ensure the security of water resources in Cambodia.
Abstract: Water resources play an important role in supporting the economic and social development of China. The impact of climate change on water resources has become a bottleneck in this process, especially for major projects, with surface water and groundwater systems experiencing considerable impacts. The annual natural recharge of fresh groundwater is 8 840×108 m3, which accounts for approximately 31% of the water resources. Groundwater is the most significant water source for many cities and energy bases, and it is also the main source acting as a buffer against extreme climate events caused by climate change. However, most of the groundwater in China buried deeply and unevenly, which increases the difficulty of investigating and exploiting this resource.This paper illustrates the general conditions of China water resources and hydrogeological hazards, such as karst sinkholes, surface subsidence, and soil salinization, caused by climate change, El Nino, La Nina, other climate events and human activities and presents the regulatory measures enacted to mitigate these issues in China.The China Geological Survey (CGS) has organized professional teams to investigate and evaluate groundwater resources and the environment since 1999. Based on these investigations, the total quantity, expected exploitable quantity and current exploited quantity of groundwater in whole China have been evaluated. In addition, an evaluation of the groundwater pollution caused by climate change throughout China and key areas has been conducted. At present, the CGS is conducting national groundwater monitoring projects and establishing regional engineering and technical measures for water resource exploitation and utilization.
Abstract: The national economy of Lao PDR is highly dependent on water resources. Consequently, the sustainable management of groundwater and successful adaptations to future climate change are major concerns. Climate projections for Lao PDR predict increased rainfall and hot weather, with more intense rainfall events and more frequent and severe droughts and floods. Under climate change, reductions in the amount and quality of groundwater are two critical problems. Reductions of the groundwater level will restrict the access of local people to groundwater resources, thereby posing a threat to food security and livelihoods. Lao PDR suffers from a limited number of human resources with the requisite skills to perform groundwater investigations and provide sustainable management. For the successful implemen?tation of groundwater management plans, limitations associated with funding and technology should be resolved via support from the government and international cooperation. Advanced action plans for capacity building and training courses should be established to strengthen administrative and individual capacities. Technical measures, such as groundwater monitoring, aquifer characterizations, and water treatment systems, should be implemented to manage future climate change and water resource security.
Abstract: Myanmar is located in Southeast Asia within the Mekong River Basin. The estimated annual surface and groundwater potentials are 1 081 km3 and 494 km3, respectively. Based on geological conditions, 11 different types of aquifers have been classified in Myanmar. The recent alluvial formation, Irrawaddy formation, Upper Pegu Group and Plateau limestone formation are the major water-bearing geologic formations of the country. In Myanmar, 89% of the groundwater is used for agriculture, approximately 8% is used for domestic consumption, and 3% is used for industrial purposes. Climate change projections for Myanmar from 2001 to 2100 predict general increases in temperature, clear-sky days, rainfall variability and flooding risks and a greater occurrence and intensity of extreme weather events across the country. Additional technology and investments are required to achieve groundwater resource security in response to climate changes. In addition, methods of ensuring the sustainability of groundwater resources must be implemented via collaborations with other countries and international sources.
Abstract: The average temperature of Thailand is projected to increase by 2-3 °C, and the annual rainfall is projected to increase by 25% and up to 50% in certain areas. The climate change in future is expected to provide changes in hydrological cycle and therefore impacts the groundwater resources too. In this study, we analyzed the general climate change trends and reviewed the groundwater conditions of Thailand. The climate changes, hydrologic variability and the impact of climate change on groundwater sustainability are also discussed based on a national groundwater monitoring program. Currently, there are 864 groundwater monitoring stations and 1 524 monitoring wells installed in Thailand. Moreover, the impact of climate change on groundwater-dependent systems and sectors is also discussed according to certain case studies, such as saline water intrusion in coastal and inland areas. Managing aquifer recharge and other projects are examples of groundwater adaptation project for the future.
Abstract: Groundwater resources have considerable influences on the human population and socioeconomic development of Vietnam and the Mekong River Delta (MRD). This paper presents an overview of the relationship between climate change and groundwater in the MRD, including the challenges, strategies and technical measures. Our results showed that groundwater levels are related to other climate and hydrological variables (i.e., rainfall, river levels, etc.); therefore, the impacts of climate change on the groundwater resources of the Mekong delta are significant, especially on groundwater recharge. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that groundwater development in the future should focus on reducing groundwater harvesting, enhancing groundwater quantity by establishing artificial works and exploiting surface water. This study suggests that the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is an effective tool for forecasting groundwater levels in periods of 1 month and 3 months for aquifers in the natural and tidal regime areas of the delta.