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2016 Vol. 4, No. 1

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Application of HYDRUS-1D in understanding soil water movement at two typical sites in the North China Plain
WANG Shi-qin, SONG Xian-fang, WEI Shou-cai, SHAO Jing-li
2016, 4(1): 1-11.
Abstract(1209) PDF(3087)
Recharge and discharge, such as rainfall infiltration and evapotranspiration in vertical direction, are major processes of water cycle in the shallow groundwater area of the North China Plain. During these processes, soil water movement in the unsaturated zone plays an important role in the transformation from rainfall infiltration to groundwater. The soil water movement models were developed by using HYDRUS-1D software at two typical experimental sites in Cangzhou (CZ) and Hengshui (HS) with different soil, vegetation and similar climate conditions. As shown in the results, the comparison in precipitation infiltration features between the two sites is distinct. The soil water experiences strong evaporation after precipitation infiltration, which accounts for 63% of the total infiltration at the HS site where the soil is homogenous. It is this strong evaporation effect that leads to slight increase of soil water storage. At the CZ site, where the soil is heterogeneous, the evaporation effect exists from July to October of the simulation period. The total evaporation accounts for 33% of the total infiltration, and the evaporation rate is slow. At the end of the simulation period, the soil water storage increases and the water table decreases, indicating a strong storage capacity at this site.
Review of the algebraic linear methods and parallel implementation in numerical simulation of groundwater flow
CHENG Tang-pei, LIU Xing-wei, SHAO Jing-Li, CUI Ya-li
2016, 4(1): 12-17.
Abstract(1069) PDF(1640)
The desire to increase spatial and temporal resolution in modeling groundwater system has led to the requirement for intensive computational ability and large memory space. In the course of satisfying such requirement, parallel computing has played a core role over the past several decades. This paper reviews the parallel algebraic linear solution methods and the parallel implementation technologies for groundwater simulation. This work is carried out to provide guidance to enable modelers of groundwater systems to make sensible choices when developing solution methods based upon the current state of knowledge in parallel computing.
Primary study on evaluation index system for groundwater exploitation potentiality based on the niche theories
YU Kai-ning, LIAO An-ran
2016, 4(1): 18-25.
Abstract(746) PDF(1387)
This paper presents a method combining single-indicator comprehensive evaluation and influence factor identification to measure groundwater quality. This method not only reflects groundwater quality classification with clear physical significance, but also divides the possibilities of man-made pollution in regional groundwater. The paper selects 6 063 representative groundwater wells in the North China Plain to evaluate 49 groundwater inorganic and organic index and comes to a conclusion: Controlled by geological environment and hydrogeological conditions, the groundwater quality in the North China Plain deteriorates from the bottom of maintain to coastal area, with Class I to III groundwater decreasing from 49% to 3.9% while Class V groundwater increasing from 21% to 86.9%; the quality of deep groundwater is better than that of shallow groundwater; the contribution rate of manganese, total hardness, total dissolved solids and iodide in shallow groundwater to over-III type water exceeds 50%; the contribution rate of nitrite in pollution index reaches 20%; while heavy metal and organic indexes have limited impact on regional groundwater quality. The North China Plain is an important economic area in China. Over decades, it has witnessed intense human activities, and water resource quantity demanded has been far greater than quantity supplied. Due to scarce surface water resource, groundwater becomes the pillar supporting regional economic development. This has led to increasing groundwater exploitation and development. According to statistics, the exploitation degree of shallow groundwater reaches 105% in the North China Plain and 118% in the Hebei Plain; the exploitation degree of deep groundwater reaches 143% in the North China Plain and 163% in the Hebei Plain. The serious over-exploitation of groundwater brings various geological environmental problems, with the worsening of groundwater quality being a typical one. Besides impact brought by human activities, the poor quality of natural water in the North China Plain is also an important factor. Therefore, to understand the current regional groundwater quality situation and to master influence factors and influence degree can provide reliable scientific protection for regional economic development.
Development of a new method for efficiently calculating of evaporation from the phreatic aquifer in variably saturated flow modeling
HAO Qi-chen, SHAO Jing-li, CUI Ya-li, ZHANG Qiu-lan
2016, 4(1): 26-34.
Abstract(548) PDF(1521)
In this paper, we proposed a new method that has been developed based on the surface soil moisture content (SSMC) to more efficiently calculate the groundwater evaporation in variably saturated flow modeling. In this method, the empirical formula to calculate evaporation was modified and the value of the formula varies from zero to one as a closed interval. In addition, the simulation code for calculating the groundwater evaporation based on the SSMC method was incorporated into the EOS9 module of Tough2, a variably saturated flow modeling code. Finally, two numerical tests and a case simulation were conducted to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the SSMC method. Simulation results indicate that the SSMC method is capable of appropriately simulating the characteristics of water flow in vadose zone and the amount of evaporation with the variable water table. And such results are in coincidence with the value calculated by the logistic function method, and fit well with the measured data globally rather than locally.
Analysis of influence of the power plant ash storage yard on groundwater environment
LI Duo, WEI Ai-hua
2016, 4(1): 35-40.
Abstract(584) PDF(619)
The fluoride contained in the filter liquor produced by fly ash in the thermal power plant which takes the coal as fuel can lead to groundwater pollution. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the migration characteristics of the pollutants in groundwater, in order to control and prevent the groundwater fluoride pollution. By adopting the numerical modeling method, this paper takes the ash-storage yard of Shahe Power Plant in Xingtai City as an example, to study the characteristics of fluoride migration in phreatic water, and establish a two-dimensional groundwater flow and water quality model on the basis of the hydrogeological condition analysis in this study area. Meanwhile, based on the Vmodflow software, the migration regulation of the fluoride in groundwater has been simulated. Because the phreatic aquifer of this area belonging to the Shahe alluvial-diluvial sediments and with a coarse lithology as well as high permeability, the migration and diffusion ability of the fluoride in this area is relatively strong. It turns out that the longest migration distance in 5 years is 892 m and that within 8 years is 1 515 m.
Research of in-situ hydraulic test method by using double packer equipment
JI Rui-li, ZHANG Ming, SU Rui, GUO Yong-hai, ZHOU Zhi-chao, LI Jie-biao
2016, 4(1): 41-51.
Abstract(638) PDF(1935)
Double packer equipment for hydraulic test can be used to measure pressure of test zone directly, and it is frequently used to perform many kinds of hydraulic tests and take groundwater sample from borehole. The test method of this equipment mainly includes the test design, implementation, interpretation and synthetic analysis. By adopting the double packer equipment for hydraulic test, the parameter distribution of rock permeability along borehole can be acquired, as well as the connectivity, water conductivity and water bearing capacity of the disclosed structure and the chemical characteristics of the deep groundwater. It is a necessary method for the research and evaluation of the complex hypotonicity terrace site selection under geological conditions. This method is not only suitable for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, but also can be used in the site selection of underground facilities such as storage of petroleum and carbon dioxide. Meanwhile, it has a good application prospect in other hydrogeological investigation fields.
Study on the residence time of deep groundwater for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal
ZHOU Zhi-chao, WANG Ju, SU Rui, GUO Yong-hai, LI Jie-biao, JI Rui-li, ZHANG Ming, DONG Jian-nan
2016, 4(1): 52-59.
Abstract(887) PDF(2275)
Residence time of deep groundwater is one of the most important parameters in safety and performance assessment for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. In this study, we collected the deep groundwater samples of Jijicao in Gansu Beishan pre-selected region. The deep groundwater residence time at two depths estimated by Helium-4 accumulation method were 3.8 ka and 5.0 ka respectively upon measurement and calculation, which indicates that the deep groundwater is not derived from the deep crust circulation process. Hence, deep groundwater is featured with long residence time as well as slow circulation and update rate, and such features are conductive to the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste.
GIS-based spatial and temporal changes of land occupation caused by mining activities-a study in eastern part of Hubei Province
GUO Li-jun, YAN Ya-ya, GUO Li-na, MA Jin-long, LV Ming-yu
2016, 4(1): 60-68.
Abstract(508) PDF(1586)
By using multi-source and multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing data and related techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal changes of land occupation caused by mine development in four mining areas of eastern Hubei Province from 2011 to 2014, including Chengchao-Tieshan iron-copper polymetallic deposit area, Daye-Yangxin iron-copper polymetallic deposit area, E-Nan mining area, and Wuxue-Yangxin non-metallic mining area along the Yangtze River. The results show that: In the research area, land occupation of energy mine exploitation is small and in scattered distribution, with coal mine occupying the largest area, showing a downward trend in four years; land occupation of metal mines is large and in centralized distribution, with iron mine and copper mine occupying the largest area, showing a downward trend in four years; non-metallic mines are large and in great quantity, with mines of limestone for building and limestone occupying the largest area, showing a upward trend in four years.

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