2016, 4(1): 18-25.
This paper presents a method combining single-indicator comprehensive evaluation and influence factor identification to measure groundwater quality. This method not only reflects groundwater quality classification with clear physical significance, but also divides the possibilities of man-made pollution in regional groundwater. The paper selects 6 063 representative groundwater wells in the North China Plain to evaluate 49 groundwater inorganic and organic index and comes to a conclusion: Controlled by geological environment and hydrogeological conditions, the groundwater quality in the North China Plain deteriorates from the bottom of maintain to coastal area, with Class I to III groundwater decreasing from 49% to 3.9% while Class V groundwater increasing from 21% to 86.9%; the quality of deep groundwater is better than that of shallow groundwater; the contribution rate of manganese, total hardness, total dissolved solids and iodide in shallow groundwater to over-III type water exceeds 50%; the contribution rate of nitrite in pollution index reaches 20%; while heavy metal and organic indexes have limited impact on regional groundwater quality. The North China Plain is an important economic area in China. Over decades, it has witnessed intense human activities, and water resource quantity demanded has been far greater than quantity supplied. Due to scarce surface water resource, groundwater becomes the pillar supporting regional economic development. This has led to increasing groundwater exploitation and development. According to statistics, the exploitation degree of shallow groundwater reaches 105% in the North China Plain and 118% in the Hebei Plain; the exploitation degree of deep groundwater reaches 143% in the North China Plain and 163% in the Hebei Plain. The serious over-exploitation of groundwater brings various geological environmental problems, with the worsening of groundwater quality being a typical one. Besides impact brought by human activities, the poor quality of natural water in the North China Plain is also an important factor. Therefore, to understand the current regional groundwater quality situation and to master influence factors and influence degree can provide reliable scientific protection for regional economic development.