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2017 Vol. 5, No. 3

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Effect of climate change on the trends of evaporation of phreatic water from bare soil in Huaibei Plain, China
SHANG Man-ting, LIU Pei-gui, LEI Chao, LIU Ming-chao, WU Liang
2017, 5(3): 213-221.
Abstract(692) PDF(940)
When the soil condition and depth to water table stay constant, climate condition will then be the only determinant of evaporation intensity of phreatic water from bare soil. Based on a series of long-term quality-controlled data collected at the Wudaogou Hydrological Experiment Station in the Huaibei Plain, Anhui, China, the variation trends of the evaporation rate of phreatic water from bare soil were studied through the Mann-Kendall trend test and the linear regression trend test, followed by the study on the responses of evaporation to climate change. Results indicated that in the Huaibei Plain during 1991-2008, evaporation of phreatic water from bare soil tended to increase at a rate of 5% on monthly scale in March, June and July while in other months the increase was minor. On the seasonal basis, the evaporation saw significant increase in spring and summer. In addition, annual evaporation tended to grow evidently over time. When air temperature rises by 1 °C, the annual evaporation rate increases by 7.24–14.21%, while when the vapor pressure deficit rises by 10%, it changes from ?0.09 to 5.40%. The study also provides references for further understanding of the trends and responses of regional evapotranspiration to climate change
Exploitation of groundwater resources and protection of wetland in the Yuqia Basin
ZHANG Chun-chao, LI Xiang-quan, GAO Ming, HOU Xin-wei, LIU Ling-xia, WANG Zhen-xing, MA Jian-fei
2017, 5(3): 222-234.
Abstract(628) PDF(1032)
In Yuqia Basin, the climate is arid and the ecologic environment is fragile, and shortage of water resources has seriously restricted the sustainable development of local economy. In order to meet the needs of industrial and domestic water in the Yuqia Basin, numerical simulation was used to evaluate the groundwater resources and potential for exploitation. The results showed that the mathematical model and calculation parameters used were mainly in accordance with practical situation. The calculated value of the underground water level is consistent with measured value during the period of identification and validation. The total recharge of groundwater resources was 22.02×104 m3/d, and the total drainage was 21.95×104 m3/d at present. The Yuqia River leakage is the main supply source of groundwater. There is no significant effect on area of wetland when water source place exploited by 2.5×104 m3/d at alluvial-diluvial fan of Yuqia River. After long-term exploitation, the spring flow reduces from 1.42×104 m3/d to 1.01×104 m3/d and wetland area reduces by 32.7% of original area. The calculation of water balance shows that it is safe to the Yuqia Basin, Da Qiadam Lake, the Mahai Basin at downstream of Yuqia River and wetland under the condition of water source place exploited by 2.5×104 m3/d.
Analysis on temporal and spatial variations of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics in the past decade in southern plain of Beijing, China
JIANG Ti-sheng, QU Ci-xiao, WANG Ming-yu, SUN Yan-wei, HU Bo, CHU Jun-yao
2017, 5(3): 235-248.
Abstract(683) PDF(693)
Groundwater utilization and protection are crucial for sustainable urban development. This is especially true for Beijing, where groundwater is an important source for urban water supply. In this study, statistical methods, including descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and Piper-Tri-linear diagram, were used in analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater based on monitored data from the southern plain of Beijing, China. Results indicated consistent changes of groundwater’s hydrochemical characteristics in different aquifers in the study area. The percentage of HCO3- in total anion increased significantly in the groundwater, and hydrochemical water type evolved gradually from Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 based to Ca-Mg-HCO3 based from period 2005-2007 to period 2013-2015. In shallow groundwater, the concentration of Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, and total dissolved solids (TDS) increased from period 2005-2007 to period 2013-2015, and the greatest change came from HCO3-, rising from 428.93 to 528.96 mgL-1. The changes of main ionic concentrations in the deep groundwater were consistent with those in the shallow groundwater for both periods. However, the variations in deep groundwater were less than those in shallow groundwater. The temporal and spatial variations of hydrochemical characteristics reflect the groundwater quality in the study area. This study could facilitate decision-making process on the protection of groundwater resources to ensure its sustainable utilization
Ultrasonic wave extraction and simultaneous analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic esters in soil
ZHANG Yong-tao, ZHAO Guo-xing, LIU Jing-shang, ZHANG Li, LI Xiao-ya, GUI Jian-ye, ZHANG Chen-ling
2017, 5(3): 249-253.
Abstract(410) PDF(800)
A method is developed for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in soil samples. Ultrasonic Wave Extraction under airtight circumstances is adopted to extract the analytes in soil samples with n-hexane–acetone (V:V=1:1) as extraction solvent. This method has several advantages, including high extraction efficiency, short time, convenience and simplicity. It can be used to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in soil.
Visualizing complex pore structure and fluid flow in porous media using 3D printing technology and LBM simulation
TONG Shao-qing, DONG Yan-hui, ZHANG Qian, SONG Fan
2017, 5(3): 254-265.
Abstract(648) PDF(1329)
Pore structures of porous media and properties of fluid flow are key factors for the study of non-Darcy groundwater flow. However, it is difficult to directly observe pore structures and flow properties, resulting in a “black box” problem of porous media. This problem has hindered the in-depth study of the groundwater flow mechanism at the pore scale. In recent years, 3D rapid prototyping technology has seen tremendous development. 3D printing provides digital models and printing models of porous media with clear internal structure. Thus, Lattice Boltzmann Method can be used to simulate the flow processes at the pore scale based on real pore structures. In this study, 3D printing cores and Lattice Boltzmann Method were coupled to conduct both laboratory and numerical experiments in spherical porous media with different sphere diameters and periodic arrays. The LBM simulation results show a good agreement with laboratory experimental results. With the advantages of LBM and 3D printing, this approach provides a visualization of the complex pore structure and fluid flow in pores, which is a promising method for studies of non-Darcy groundwater flow at the pore scale.
Assessment of shallow groundwater vulnerability in Dahei River Plain based on AHP and DRASTIC
ZHU Yu-chen, ZHANG Yi-long, HAO Qi-chen
2017, 5(3): 266-277.
Abstract(553) PDF(1065)
Based on the special hydrogeological conditions of the Dahei River Plain in the Inner Mongolia area, assessment of shallow groundwater vulnerability is conducted based on DRASTIC model. Each evaluation indicator weight is determined by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The most important indicators are lithology in soil media and vadose zone. Assessment model of shallow groundwater vulnerability of the Dahei River plain is constructed. Distribution map of vulnerability index in this area is made with the spatial analysis function of ARCGIS. The results show that the particularly sensitive area is the piedmont of the Daqing Mountain, where the upstream place of the groundwater and the south-central place of the plain has the lowest vulnerability. The assessment results are more in accordance with the actual vulnerability conditions of this area by using analytic hierarchy process, and is helpful for groundwater protection.
Investigation of groundwater quantitative change, Tehran Province, Iran
2017, 5(3): 278-285.
Abstract(563) PDF(967)
Changes in groundwater level in Homand-Absard plain, located in north-west of Kavir-e-Markazi watershed and east of Tehran province, were studied. The used research method was descriptive approach, and the research study was conducted based on field and desk surveys. The data needed was provided from field surveys, contours maps, and data of observation wells. There were 17 observation wells in the study area where the changes in groundwater levels were measured during 1996-2013, and an index hydrograph was prepared for the aquifer of plain. The sharpest decline in the groundwater level was in the central of Homan-Absard plain. There was 1.43 m decline in the groundwater level of aquifer annually, compared with similar studies in other parts of Iran, it has a high rate, and to the average, the groundwater level of plain has dropped equal to 25.76 m, 1996-2013. According to the study findings, the groundwater level changes with those in rainfall weren’t match and the drop in groundwater level during wet years and then has continued which represents the high water extraction factor on the groundwater level drop.
Research on the effect of straw mulching on the soil moisture by field experiment in the piedmont plain of the Taihang Mountains
LI Man, ZHANG Wei, HE Yu-jiang, WANG Gui-ling
2017, 5(3): 286-295.
Abstract(525) PDF(801)
To reveal the influencing effect of the long-term straw mulching on the soil moisture, this paper employed the field experiment data in 2010 of a typical area of Taihang Mountains plain, observed the soil moisture dynamic regularities under different mulching patterns by virtue of depressimeter and neutron probe, analyzed the characteristics of soil water content and storage in different depths and seasons under the long-term straw mulching. The results showed that the long-term straw mulching can keep the soil moisture conservation of the deep, while decreased the shallow. (1) The long-term straw mulching can changed the type of soil water movement. If no straw mulching, the type is mainly evaporation-infiltration. And with straw mantle the type would change into infiltration. The number of zero flux plane would be reduced or absent. (2) The long-term straw mulching can increase the soil water reserves of the whole soil profile with the depth between 0 cm and 220 cm. But the soil water content of the layer from 30 cm to 80 cm decreased and the soil water content of the layer from 80 cm to 220 cm increased instead., The effect of soil moisture conservation on winter wheat is not obvious; (3) With no straw mulching, the depth of infiltration recharge by rainfall or irrigation is shallower than 80 cm. In a straw mulching, the influence depth is can extend to 120 cm; (4) With no straw mulching , there is a deep layer on the depth of 220 cm between March and June, while this layer will disappear with a long-term straw mulching.
Research on quality changes and influencing factors of groundwater in the Guanzhong Basin
TAO Hong, ZHENG Miao-miao, FAN Li-min, LI Wen-li, DING Jia, LI Hui, HE Xu-bo, TAO Fu-ping
2017, 5(3): 296-302.
Abstract(732) PDF(867)
This paper studies the distribution features, the chemical elements beyond standards and the influencing factors of shallow groundwater quality in the Guanzhong Basin through the data monitored in the last twenty years. The final purpose is to comprehensively evaluate the divisions of groundwater quality in the Guanzhong Basin. Results show that , the groundwater quality is in good shape, and suitable for drinking. Drinking accounts for 16.02% of the total, most of which are distributed in the lubotan of Weibei. Some come from loess plateau of Qian-Liquan County and some are generated by the industrial pollution of Xingping City. Materials exceeding standards include chloride, sulfate, three nitrogen, fluoride, manganese, iron, hexavalent chromium and so on. The main factors influencing the quality of shallow groundwater include groundwater exploitation, natural background value of special components and precipitation, among which the groundwater exploitation poses the greatest impact. The depth of water is positively correlated with the concentration of sulfate, nitrate and total hardness.
International Association of Hydrogeologists and China
HAN Zai-sheng, NI Zeng-shi
2017, 5(3): 303-310.
Abstract(756) PDF(896)
Before 1985, there were a few Chinese participators for International Association of Hydrogeologists which founded in 1956. The Chinese team composed of senior hydrogeologists attended the 17th and 18th IAH congress in 1985. More and more Chinese delegates were present at the conferences since then. The IAH National Chapter of China was first established in 1987 and organized related activities continuously since that time. The IAH members in P.R. China increased in these years. IAH congresses have been hold in China twice. The 21th congress was held in Guilin City in October, 1988. The 34th congress was held in Beijing in October, 2006. The IAH China Chapter serves for all IAH members and other scientists promoting groundwater sciences in China. There were a lot of national conferences on Hydrogeology and Groundwater sciences held almost every year since 1987. Those national conferences associate with Commission on Hydrogeology, Geology Society of China in operation. Many Chinese IAH members were the editors and responsible for the Chinese translation for the abstract of Hydrogeology Journal. The Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering is an international journal for the natural sciences. The sponsors are IAH China chapter, Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, CAGS.

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