Abstract: Transboundary aquifer (TBA) is an aquifer system that exists in more than one state. As an important component of the groundwater system, proper management and rational utilization in trans-boundary aquifers are significantly important for promoting sustainable development and good-neighbor relationships. The Transboundary Aquifers will not implicate by the country’s political boundary as it follows the natural boundary lines. Within the frame work of the UNESCO's International Hydrological Programme (IHP-VI & VII) activities for the International Shared Aquifer Resource Management (ISARM), the inventory on TBA in Asia both preliminary and detail has accomplished. Those TBAs are classified in to two types: regional and local grade. A of Asian Transboundary Aquifers Map has advanced. The updated map provides the situation of the regional TBAs identify as the actual shape. Countries with the TBAs should strengthen cooperation for coordination and joint management of groundwater resources in order to achieve sustainable use
Abstract: The groundwater of medium salinity refers to the groundwater with a mineralization degree of 2-7 g/L that can be directly or indirectly used for irrigation. This paper determined the distribution area of the groundwater with medium salinity in Tarim Basin, estimated the total amount of recharge resources and exploitable quantity of the groundwater of medium salinity. The irrigation water quality assessment was conducted on the groundwater of medium salinity by using multiple factors and methods. The salt tolerance parameters and irrigation water mineralization control parameters of the cotton in under-mulch-drip irrigation were determined. The under-mulch-drip irritation technology for cotton in groundwater of medium salinity was developed and applied successfully to the demonstration area. The social, economic and ecological effects of this technology as well as the application prospect were analysed. This paper also puts forward two questions that need to be further studied
Abstract: The temperature of groundwater will be increasing gradually while it is recharged and infiltrated down to the depth because of the geothermal gradient. So the density of water is smaller and smaller. The author puts forward the heat-driving mechanism that the movement of the groundwater is caused by the density differences from different temperatures. Based on this idea, the author proposes the short range recharge model of geothermal water in flat terrain hilly area. The model explains the coexistence mechanism of recharge and discharge (hot springs) zones can be at the same altitude. Considering that the temperature is an important driving force of groundwater movement, the paper puts forward and demonstrates that the hot springs can expose at higher lands while the recharge zone being situated lower lying areas.
Abstract: Water has an irreplaceable role and function in determining the main factors of the environmental, ecological and geological environment. It is one of the most important factors impacting ecological balance, ecological and geological environment and other factors or components. When the water availability changes, other factors or components can follow chains of reaction, changing or rebalancing accordingly. The water factor of the Sanjiang plain is discussed, characterized and analyzed in detail. We illustrate that water availability can have a large impact on environmental and geological problems.
Abstract: The hydrogeological generalized model of a tailing pond in Qian’an was established. Based on this model, the migration rules of the fluorides in the study area were subjected to the fully implicit difference method of Visual Modflow software (MT3DMS). The study indicates that the direction of fluorides migration is consistent with the direction of the stream flow generally, and the concentration of the fluorides decreases with the increase of the migration distance. The simulation results can provide scientific bases for the assessment and management of the underground water in the contaminated zone.
Abstract: With respect to underground water as a component of water resources, this Paper, by analyzing the distribution, development and utilization of underground water resources in Zhejiang Province, brings forth the advices on setup of underground-water-based emergency water source in various cities in Zhejiang Province in accordance with the principle for selection of underground-water-based emergency water sources for the purpose of properly strengthen the protection of drinking water source (including underground water) in rural areas and properly setting up the emergency water sources in urban areas, so as to provide the scientific basis for protection of water supply security in rural and urban areas.
Abstract: Precipitation and groundwater are essential to water circulation and they mutually influence. Groundwater is the main water supply source in Hebei Plain. On the other hand, atmospheric precipitation infiltration recharge is the main supply source of the groundwater in this area. Therefore, the studies on Hebei Plain climatic change features are of great significance to further analyze the influences of climatic changes on groundwater resources. This paper selected 10 ground climatological stations in Hebei Plain in terms of daily precipitation and temperature data from 1961 to 2010 and analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution features of temperature and precipitation. The results showed that the minimum temperature of Hebei Plain in recent 50 years increased significantly; the maximum temperature basically is stable; and the mean temperature presents an obviously increasing trend. In the spatial distribution, it gradually decreases from southwest to northeast on the whole and gradually tends to increase from the coastal to inland. The precipitation in recent 50 years owns obvious interannual change features and spatial distribution features, with a trend of overall periodic decrease and significant decrease of extreme precipitation. The annual mean precipitation intensity and annual mean extreme precipitation intensity gradually increased from piedmont plain to coastal plain. Hebei Plain has a warming and drying development trend on the whole. In space, piedmont plain belongs to the high-temperature and few-water area; coastal plain lies in low-temperature and much-water area; and central plain is in transitional zone. The climatic change and human activities are two influential factors of groundwater resources. Further revealing of the climatic change features of different geomorphic types and measuring and distinguishing of the influences of climatic change and human activities on groundwater remain to be further explored.
Abstract: With the oil contaminated site of an oil field in northeast as the research area, based on the site geological and hydrogeological conditions, and by virtue of the methods of assessment on current situation of organic contamination and environmental impact assessment as well as leaching mobility assessment on organics, the internal and external risk assessments on organic contamination of shallow groundwater in the research area are conducted respectively. According to the results, about 30 kinds of organic components, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, mononuclear aromatics, heteroaromatic compound, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and n-alkanes, are detected in the shallow groundwater in the research area. The current situation contamination of dichloromethane is the most serious, and all well points are of contamination at medium or above level. Compared with dichloromethane, contamination of trichloromethane and benzene is lighter, but several seriously contaminated well points occur in these two groups. The leaching mobility of dichloromethane, trichloromethane and benzene is extremely high, posing the greatest contamination risks against groundwater.
Abstract: Adsorption behavior of Cr (VI) in vadose zone, which is silty clay and clayey soil, was studied through kinetics experiments, isothermal adsorption experiments under various conditions, including different ph, temperature and organic contents. The results from kinetics experiments showed that the sorption progress of Cr (VI) has clear features in different stages, and adsorption equilibrium showed at 30 min, the adsorption rate of silty clay and clayey soil were 60%. The isothermal adsorption curve of Cr (VI) fitted closely with Freundlich equation model. When pH is 3-5 a plateau were seen, thereafter with increase in pH the adsorption rate of Cr (VI) dropped sharply and the minimum achieved at pH 10, the adsorption rate were only 35%. Adsorption rate of Cr (VI) increased gradually with the increase of temperature, the temperature of vadose zone is 14.7 ℃, according to the experimental results, the adsorption rate of Cr (VI) is about 40%. The use of organics represents an important contribution to the sorption of Cr (VI), sorption rate up to 100% when 30% of organic content. These studies will provide basis for manager to minimize the impacts, and provide basic data for pollution prevention and remediation of vadose zone.
Abstract: Phu tok Aquifer is the most productive water bearing rock in the Northeastern region of Thailand. Generally, well drilled in this aquifer yields approximately 20–50 m3/hr with some wells yield over 150 m3/hr. This aquifer characterized both unconfined and confined aquifer. Data collected from core sampling and TV bore hole show water bearing fractures in the fine grained massive sandstone intercalated with thin shale layers. These intermittently bedding plane fracture zones were found vertically at 60-65 and 95-110 m below ground surface. Three directions of vertically fractures were also found at 103-104 m in the test well with underlain densely sandstone until 120 m of depth. Wells drilled to 60-70 m fractures at the area where surface elevation between 150 and 170 m above mean sea level were artesian well with rising water about 1-3 m. Natural discharge rate from 2-5 inches of diameter casing is 5-10 m3/hr. Fractures at 90-110 m yield 150 m3/hr through 6 inch casing well with 5-6 m of risen water above the ground. It is found from pumping test of Phu Tok Aquifer that hydraulic conductivity of unconfined aquifer at shallower than 50 m is 0.005-17 m/d. Transmissivity and storage coefficient are 0.05-20 m2/d and 7×10-3-0.725 respectively. The confined aquifer at depth not exceed 90 m has hydraulic conductivity value of 0.2-10 m/d while transmissivity and storage coefficient are 3.19-150 m2/d and 1×10-10-1.6×10-2. Another confined aquifer at 90-120 m of depth have hydraulic conductivity value of 0.08-15 m/d and transmissivity and storage coefficient values of 1.7-178 m2/d and 4×10-7-4.5×10-3 respectively.