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2023 Vol. 11, No. 2

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Research Paper
Determine the most appropriate strategy for groundwater management in arid and semi-arid regions, Abhar Plain, Iran
Fatemeh Einlo, Mohammad Reza Ekhtesasi, Mehdi Ghorbani, Parviz Abdinejad
2023, 11(2): 97-115. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280010
Abstract(699) FullText HTML (345) PDF(100)
Due to growing demand and reduction of water resources and increasing pollution of water, driven by dramatic population and economic growth, arid and semi-arid land’s imminent water problems are nowadays aggravating. This study aims to determine the most appropriate management strategies for balancing the Abhar plain aquifer using the SWOT coupled with AHP technique. The results indicate that weaknesses prevail over strengths as well as threats over opportunities. The placement in the quarter of weaknesses-threats with a defensive strategy indicates the critical condition of the Abhar plain aquifer. The most appropriate solutions to achieve the goal of balancing the groundwater were prioritized by AHP method. According to results, improper management of water consumption with a weight of 72.5% is the most destructive factor in reducing groundwater resources. Among the types of consumption, the effect of an agricultural factor carries a weight of 74.2%. The exploitation of illegal wells, overdraft of exploitation license provisions of wells, reduction of precipitation and traditional irrigation methods were selected as the destructive factors causing the deteriration of groundwater resources. Also, with filling the illegal wells, changing the type of cultivation and greenhouse crops cultivation, installing a smart water meter, observance the provisions of the water exploitation license, implementing integrated pressurized irrigation systems, benefiting from suitable climatic conditions and geographical location for cultivating and developing the low-water use species and industries and on the other hand, with implementing artificial recharge to control the surface water resources and reduce abstraction from groundwater aquifers, the adverse trend of Abhar Plain groundwater resources can be controlled.
Estimating aquifer transmissivity using Dar-Zarrouk parameters to delineate groundwater potential zones in Alluri Seetharama Raju District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Bakuru Anandagajapathi Raju, Palavai Venkateswara Rao, Mangalampalli Subrahmanyam
2023, 11(2): 116-132. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280011
Abstract(440) FullText HTML (224) PDF(70)
This study aimed to explore groundwater potential zones in the EGMB of Alluri Seetharama Raju district, Andhra Pradesh, India, for drinking and agriculture purposes. To achieve this goal, 72 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were conducted using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. The resistivity sounding data were analyzed to determine the aquifer thickness, basement depth, Dar-Zarrouk parameters, and aquifer transmissivity. Spatial distribution maps were generated for these parameters to understand the subsurface formation. The analysis revealed a linear groundwater potential zone (8.46 km2) in the eastern part of the study area, extending in the NNE-SSW direction for 9.6 km. Six VES locations (P24, P27, P29, P30, P33, and P38) in this zone exhibit good potential (>30 m aquifer thickness), while the three VES locations (OP19, P5, and P46) in the central region are recommended for drilling bore wells. Additionally, moderate aquifer thickness (20–30 m) are identified in other VES locations (OP14, OP20, P4, P10, P12, P13, P15, P17, P18, P31, P46, and P50) along streams in the western and central part of the area, which can yield reasonable quantities of water. This information is useful for groundwater exploration and watershed management to meet the demands of tribal population in the study area.
Optimizing groundwater recharge plan in North China Plain to repair shallow groundwater depression zone, China
Rui-fang Meng, Hui-feng Yang, Xi-lin Bao, Bu-yun Xu, Hua Bai, Jin-cheng Li, Ze-xin Liang
2023, 11(2): 133-145. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280012
Abstract(845) FullText HTML (416) PDF(97)
The North China Plain is one of the main grain producing areas in China. However, over-exploitation has long been unsustainable since the water supply is mainly from groundwater. Since 2014, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project’s central route has been charted to the integrated management of water supply and over-exploitation, which has alleviated the problem to a certain extent. Although the Ministry of Water Resources has made many efforts on groundwater recharge since 2018 most of which have been successful, the recharge has not yet been sufficiently focused on the repair of shallow groundwater depression zones. It still needs further optimization. This paper discusses this particular issue, proposes optimized recharge plan and provides the following recommendations: (1) Seven priority target areas are selected for groundwater recharge in alluvial and proluvial fans in the piedmont plain, and the storage capacity is estimated to be 181.00×108 m3; (2) A recharge of 31.18×108 m3/a is required by 2035 to achieve the repair target; (3) It is proposed to increase the recharge of Hutuo River, Dasha River and Tanghe River to 19.00×108 m3/a and to rehabilitate Gaoliqing-Ningbailong Depression Zone; increase the recharge of Fuyang River, Zhanghe River and Anyang River to 7.05×108 m3/a and rehabilitate Handan Feixiang-Guangping Depression Zone; increase the recharge of Luanhe River by 0.56×108 m3/a and restore Tanghai Depression Zone and Luanan-Leting Depression Zone; moderately reduce the amount of water recharged to North Canal and Yongding River to prevent excessive rebound of groundwater; (4) Recharge through well is implemented on a pilot basis in areas of severe urban ground subsidence and coastal saltwater intrusion; (5) An early warning mechanism for groundwater quality risks in recharge areas is established to ensure the safety. The numerical groundwater flow model also proves reasonable groundwater level restoration in the depression zones by 2035.
Geological suitability of natural sponge body for the construction of sponge city—a case study of Shuanghe Lake district in Zhengzhou airport zone
Yong-jun Su, Hui Tang, Ai-min Wu, Xue-ping Dai, Shuang Liu, Hong-wei Liu, Heng Kuang
2023, 11(2): 146-157. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280013
Abstract(360) FullText HTML (191) PDF(31)
Natural and geological environmental conditions have an important impact on the planning and construction of sponge cities. This paper analyzes geological factors that influence the usage of natural sponge bodies, taking the Shuanghe lake district of Zhengzhou airport zone as an example. An evaluation system with seven factors has been established and the weights of these factors are determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Overlay analysis is then carried out on all factors using GIS to evaluate the geological suitability of the construction of the sponge city. The results show that geologically suitable area for city construction in Shuanghe lake district accounts for 12.3%, relatively suitable area accounts for 76.1%, and relatively unsuitable area accounts for 11.6%. For suitable and relatively suitable areas, we should make full use of the advantages of surface infiltration, vadose zone transportation and aquifer storage to build a sponge city infrastructure with geological engineering as the main component, supplemented by engineering measures such as surface water storage and drainage, and jointly establish a sustainable urban hydrological cycle. For less suitable areas, artificial rain and flood control works, such as roof garden, should be considered. The findings of this paper can serve as an important reference for sponge city planning and construction not only in the research area but also in other regions with similar geological conditions.
Current status and prospects of research on 1,4-dioxane pollution and treatment technologies in the water environment
Chun-xiao Wang, Yong Qian, Zhao-ji Zhang, Chen Yue, Chun-yan Guo, Xiang-xiang Cui
2023, 11(2): 158-170. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280014
Abstract(413) FullText HTML (238) PDF(19)
1,4-dioxane pollution is characterized by its early identification, widespread sources and extensive distribution. The pollutant is highly mobile and persistent in the water environment and is classified as a B2 (probable) human carcinogen. After reviewing recent researches on the pollution status, transport and transformation characteristics of 1,4-dioxane in the water environment, as well as the environmental pollution remediation and treatment technologies, and the status of environmental regulation, this paper addresses that the distribution of 1,4-dioxane in water bodies is significantly correlated with chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE). It is noteworthy that 1,4-dioxane often occurs in symbiosis with 1,1,1-TCA and has a similarity contamination plume distribution to 1,1,1-TCA. The natural attenuation of 1,4-dioxane in groundwater environment is weak, but there is a certain degree of biological oxidation attenuation. Current methods for treating 1,4-dioxane pollution mainly include extraction-treatment technology, advanced oxidation treatment technology, modified biological treatment technology and phytoremediation technology, all of which have their limitations in practical application. Currently, there is no environmental regulation available for the 1,4-dioxane pollution worldwide, and no enforceable standard established for defining the health trigger levels of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. Research on this contaminant in China is generally limited to the site or laboratory scale, and there are no studies on the environmental risk and quality standards for 1,4-dioxane in the water environment.
Investigation of groundwater characteristics and its influence on Landslides in Heifangtai Plateau using comprehensive geophysical methods
Feng-dan Yu, Gang Qiao, Kai Wang, Xu Zhang
2023, 11(2): 171-182. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280015
Abstract(336) FullText HTML (164) PDF(34)
The occurrence of landslides in Heifangtai plateau is primarily caused by the rise in water levels due to irrigation. To accurately understand the distribution of groundwater and its impact on the landslide hazard, a combination of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Induced Polarization (IP) and Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) methods were used in this study. By conducting a comprehensive analysis, the characteristics of water-bearing structure in vertical and groundwater distribution in horizontal were detected; and the influence of the groundwater on plateau and landslides was also identified. The results indicate that the groundwater occurs in the loess aquifer with a three-layer structure in vertical. Horizontally, the aquifer has a unified water table over the plateau, with a low water level in the north and high one in the south. The high resistivity bedrock uplift belt in the middle of the plateau forms a watershed, with the north side of the uplift belt being a relatively stable slope area with stable water content and fewer geological disasters. In contrast, the south side of the uplift belt is a disaster-prone region with vertical fissures well developed in the loess aquifers. The southern landslides are characterized by the interphase distribution of high and low electrical resistivity. The infiltration and discharge of groundwater result in the formation of a collapse belt in the low resistivity water-bearing structure of landslide, which causes the entire block with high resistivity and stable bedrock to slide. There was a newly formed landslide in a larger range at the landslide’s trailing edge. This study provides a scientific basis for the study of landslides mechanisms and disaster prevention by identifying the distribution characteristics of groundwater and analyzing its influence from a geophysical perspective in Heifangtai.
Experimental investigation of the impact of water depth, inlet water temperature, and fins on the productivity of a Pyramid Solar Still
Yousef Al-Abed Allah Malik, Omar Abu Abbas Mohammad
2023, 11(2): 183-190. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280016
Abstract(439) FullText HTML (213) PDF(36)
This experimental study aimed to investigate the impact of water depth, inlet water temperature, and fins on the productivity of a pyramid solar still in producing distilled water. The experiment was conducted in three parts, where the first part explored the variation in water depth from 1 cm to 5 cm, the second part evaluated the effect of increasing inlet water temperature from 30°C to 50°C, and the third part added fins at the bottom of the still at a specific inlet water depth. Results showed that basin depth had a significant impact on the still’s production, with a maximum variation of 40.6% observed when the water level was changed from 1 cm to 5 cm. The daily freshwater production from the pyramid solar still ranged from 3.41 kg/m2 for a water depth of 1 cm to 2.02 kg/m2 for a depth of 5 cm. Adding fins at the bottom of the pyramid solar still led to a 7.5% increase in productivity, while adjusting the inlet water temperature from 30°C to 40°C and 50°C resulted in a 15.3% and 21.2% increase, respectively. These findings highlighted the essential factors that can influence the productivity of pyramid solar stills and can be valuable in designing and operating efficient water desalination and purification technologies.
Water resource utilization characteristics and driving factors in the Hainan Island
Dun Wang, Li-xin Pei, Li-zhong Zhang, Xi-wen Li, Ze-heng Chen, Yue-hu Zhou
2023, 11(2): 191-206. doi: 10.26599/JGSE.2023.9280017
Abstract(349) FullText HTML (169) PDF(27)
The scarcity of water resources caused by the unique topography and uneven rainfall distribution in Hainan Island has become a major factor restricting local development. In order to provide effective and scientific reference basis for the overall water resource utilization status and solving this problem, this study calculated the water resource utilization situation of Hainan Island from 2017 to 2021 in detail using methods including water resource ecological footprint analysis. Furthermore, a spatial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the island’s water resource utilization characteristics, and the driving factors behind the changes in water resource utilization over the past five years were analyzed using the LMDI model. The results show that: (1) During the study period, the water resource ecological footprint in Hainan Island exhibited a slow growth trend, while the ecological carrying capacity showed a downward tendency. The per capita ecological deficit of water resources remains relatively high, and the water consumption per 10 000 yuan GDP in the whole land continues to decrease, indicating that the overall pressure on water resource demand remains high with significant regional differences accompanied by the efficiency of water resource utilization steadily improving at the same time; (2) Agricultural water use accounts for the highest proportion in the entire water use structure, while ecological water use represents the smallest share, with a year-on-year increase, indicating that Hainan Island highlights the agricultural development and is increasingly conscious of the ecological environment; (3) Significant spatial differentiation in water resource utilization characteristics exists in Hainan Island, with the western region being a hot spot aggregation area for per capita water resource ecological footprint, per capita ecological carrying capacity of water resources, water consumption per 10 000 yuan GDP, while it is a cold spot cluster area for per capita ecological deficit of water resources. The opposite holds true for the eastern region of Hainan Island; (4) Economic and technological factors have a major impact on the changes in water resource ecological footprint within the designated area. Among them, economic factors drive the growth of the water resource ecological footprint in Hainan Island, and exacerbate local water resource consumption, while technological factors negatively contribute to the amount of water resource utilization in Hainan Island, indicating that advanced technology has improved water resource utilization efficiency and significantly reduced water resource consumption.

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