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2013 Vol. 1, No. 2

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Education and Core Competencies for Professional Hydrogeologists
Richard E. Jackson
2013, 1(2): 9-13.
Abstract(931) PDF(1137)
M. J. Currell, D. Han and Z. Chen et al. Sustainability of groundwater usage in north China: dependence on palaeowaters and effects on Hydrogeologists may undergo initial education at the BS/BSc level as engineers, geo?scientists or in another area of physical science. There is a need in the 21st Century to standardize the required competency profile of a professional hydrogeologist so that their professional cer-tification is accepted internationally. This is particularly the case in free-trade areas such as North America and the European Union where cross border consulting is economically important. It is also important to foreign graduate students who will want to be assured that their academic qualification in hydrogeology will be accepted internationally. The 1999 Bologna Accord in Europe and the American Society of Civil Engineer’s Body of Knowledge BOK2 report clearly indicate the growing acceptance of the BS/BSc degree as that of the engineer-in-training degree and that, in the words of the ASCE’s Committee on Academic Pre?requisites for Professional Practice: “The outcome regarding specialized technical knowledge is best accomplished in a post-graduate program of study. By not including technical specialization in the undergraduate program of study, necessary breadth can be achieved without increasing the size of the curriculum.” Thus, in the USA, by 2025 admission to an 8-hour written examination in the prin?ciples and practice of engineering will require that an engineering intern have: ? A MSc degree in engineering from an accredited institution and 3 or more years of progressive experience, or ? A minimum of 30 additional appropriate credits from approved course providers plus 4 or more years of progressive experience. Therefore the BS is the engineer-in-training degree and the MS is the professional engineer degree. The Bologna process has moved the EU nations towards a similar policy position with a first cycle/second cycle university system of 3+2 years leading to an MEng or MSc(Eng) degree. The geo-engineering community in the US and Europe have realized that they must respond to these developments and have established an international Joint Technical Committee on Education and Training (JTC3) to consider the competency profiles for these geo-engineering professions. What will be the response by the IAH and by hydrogeologists in general to these initiatives and what should we expect of the core competency of hydrogeologists in the 21st century?
Isotopic Composition of Waters in the Dem?novská dolina Valley and Its Underground Hydrologic System During Winter and Spring of 2010/2011
2013, 1(2): 14-23.
Abstract(675) PDF(948)
In the Dem?novská dolina Cave system (Slovakia) and its vicinity, 32 sampling places for regular observation (in 2-months interval) of δ18O and δ2H in water were established. This monitoring included precipitation waters, waters in the surface streams, waters of the underground hydrological system as well as the dripping seepage waters of the cave system. Altitudinal extent of the area was from 800 m a.s.l. (lowermost cave entrance) to 2024 m a.s.l. (Chopok Mt. on the top of the crystalline range). Initial results show some similarities but also differences within the analyzed water types. For precipitation, a high variability of isotopic composition was confirmed, from quite depleted up to more enriched waters (δ18O from -16.8‰ up to -5.7‰; δ2H from -121.6‰ to -32.7‰). During the recharge process and groundwater/surface water formation, precipitation water is homogenized, what is reflected in much more stable isotope content. The most depleted (δ18O ≈ -11.7‰ to -10.8‰; δ2H ≈ -78.9‰ to -73.4‰) were the waters of surface streams, running from the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts., formed by crystalline rocks, alochtonous to the under?ground hydrological system. Smaller autochtonous surface water streams (formed in the side valleys of the main karstic canyon) are slightly enriched (heavier, as δ18O ≈ -11.4‰ to -10.6‰; δ2H ≈ -78.3‰ to -71.5‰), what reflects lower altitudes of their watersheds. Interesting is the distribution of the isotope content of the underground streams in the cave system. The most depleted are the underground streams directly (visibly) communicating with surface waters (δ18O≈-11.33±0.13‰; δ2H≈-76.88±1.68‰). Extent of the relationship of underground streams to the autochtonous seepage waters (slow circulation through the fissures) is manifested by respective portion of iso?topically enriched waters–as the underground streams show different isotope composition. The combination of the alochtonous water components (from surface streams reaching the karstic area from the adjacent crystalline via swallow holes) and autochtonous water components (recharged directly in karstified limestones) is visible especially on the subsurface stream of Dem?novka. The most isotopically enriched (heaviest) of all water types are dripping seepage waters (δ18O ≈ -10.4‰ to -9.4‰; δ2H ≈ -71.6‰ to -65.0‰).
A Study of the Groundwater Reservoirs and Regulation in the Alluvial Fan of the Hutuo River
Xu Guangming, Bi Pan, Li Anna
2013, 1(2): 24-31.
Abstract(840) PDF(1029)
Based on analysis of the geology and hydrogeology of the alluvial fan of the Hutuo River, Hebei province of China, this paper studies the groundwater reservoir’s regulated space, storage capacity and regulated water in system. On this basis, a groundwater numerical simulation model was established. Using this model and taking into account specific regulating schemes, this paper evaluates the regulation and storage capacity of groundwater reservoirs and the effect of conjunct-tive operation of surface water and groundwater. Results show that the funnel area of the study area status storage space is 12.83×108m3. Groundwater level after the regulation has clearly rebounded; improving groundwater supply and ensuring stable water supply in Shijiazhuang city of Hebei province, this clearly has important practical significance.
Water Resources Issues and Control Policy Recommendations in the Process of “Industrialization, Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization” in Henan Province
Li Manzhou, Pang Zhenlei
2013, 1(2): 32-40.
Abstract(493) PDF(776)
In the process of “industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization”(he-rein--after referred to shortly as “IUAM”)in Henan province, water resources issues have caused deterioration of water environments and water attenuation. These are the region's most common and prominent issues, caused by improper activities, water environmental conflict and ignoring the results of local water environment carrying capacity. This environmental problem is getting worse and worse, seriously restricting the region’s “IUAM” healthy development. According to coor-dinated development between “IUAM” and water resources bearing capacity, we carry out the environmental management of water resources policy research and design and put forward some corresponding policies and proposals.
Revision of Handbook of Hydrogeology (2nd Edition)
Tong Yuanqing, Liu Li, Wang? Xiuming, Li Yingzhi
2013, 1(2): 41-47.
Abstract(666) PDF(1143)
Handbook of Hydrogeology is a professional reference book guiding the work and re-search of hydrogeology and providing enlightenment to hydrogeologists and those working in re-lated fields. This paper introduces the revision and enlargement of Handbook of Hydro-geology (2nd edition) on the basis of its first edition. It gives a brief account of the background, principles, and necessity of revising the handbook. The content, features and application of the handbook are also addressed.
Analysis of Water Resource Demands: Based on the Hydrological Unit
Cheng Yanpei, Ma Renhui
2013, 1(2): 48-59.
Abstract(640) PDF(942)
It is important to take into account land use when considering water resource demands. The Hydrological unit is defined as the assimilation of land use and soil properties into a lumped element, spatially separate area which exhibits a typical hydrological reaction. Using physically based equations, water balance can be calculated and compared for different hydrological units and thus water resources can be assessed. The Huanghua City in Hebei province is taken as an example to analyze the hydrological elements of water resources supply and demand for different land use types. Huanghua City is located in the alluvial plains, which is flat, and geologically uniform. The altitude is generally in 2.5-5m above sea level. The geomorphology consists of an ancient river course, depressions, shallow depressions, ancient shell dikes and lagoons, typical characteristics of a coastal plain.
The Role of Groundwater Leakage through Deep Wells for the Deformation of Groundwater Flow: a Case Study in Cangzhou Area
Wang Ping, Han Zhantao, Li Yasong, Chen Kang, Lv Xiaoli, Jian Ming
2013, 1(2): 80-87.
Abstract(530) PDF(983)
Overexploitation of groundwater in Cangzhou area has attracted wide attention. Different layers of the aquifer may be connected through wells, since most wells of the deep aquifer have screens in several layers. This study proved the existence of vertical flow through wells, calculated the flow velocity and quantity of vertical flow in wells with methods of both field measurement and numerical simulation. Further, the recharge of deep groundwater by vertical flow through wells was estimated. An annual recharge of 1.5×108-2.8×108m3 from the third aquifer to the forth aquifer in Cangzhou area was estimated, according to the in-well measurement by heat pulse flowmeter sonde.
Evaluation Index System of Hydrogeological Investigation Software
Wang Qian, Zhang Lizhong, Cai Zizhao, Huo Zhibin, Zhang Huaidong
2013, 1(2): 96-103.
Abstract(679) PDF(951)
Currently, many types of software including those used for environmental geological survey, investigation of groundwater resources, groundwater pollution invest-igation and urban geological environment investigation have been developed by hydrogeological investigation in-dustries. In order to rationally and scientifically evaluate the quality of the software and guide software development, a study on hydrogeological survey software evaluation was conducted unsing an index system. A weighting method was used to establish a three-stage quality indicator system model including technical modules, test items and test sub-items. The evaluation index system model was divided into seven technical modules, 26 test items and 71 test sub-items, and scoring methods and scoring criteria of various evaluation indicators were established. The groundwater resources survey software was evaluated and the evaluation index system model was tested. Hydro-geological survey software evaluation is still in its infancy, so the hydrogeological survey software evaluation index system is the primary probe for hydrogeological survey software eva-luation standards and norms.